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Technical Paper

Lateral Impact-An Analysis of the Statistics in the NCSS

Data from the National Crash Severity Study (NCSS) has been analyzed with respect to lateral impacts. Accident variables, vehicle variables, and occupant variables, and their interactions have been considered. ...Overall, these lateral impact statistics are quite similar to results of other field accident studies, which is an interesting observation given the diverse vehicle and driver populations and the differing traffic situations experienced by those populations.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Belt Restraint Systems in Quasistatic Vehicle Rollover Tests

They found that the occupant's kinematics, as opposed to roof crush, were responsible for potentially injurious neck injuries as a result of diving type accident kinematics of the head and torso. This led us to examine seat system, belt restraint system and belt restraint anchorage designs that could potentially improve the occupants head to roof clearance.
Technical Paper

Development of an Advanced ATD Thorax System for Improved Injury Assessment in Frontal Crash Environments

Injuries to the thorax and abdomen comprise a significant percentage of all occupant injuries in motor vehicle accidents. While the percentage of internal chest injuries is reduced for restrained front-seat occupants in frontal crashes, serious skeletal chest injuries and abdominal injuries can still result from interaction with steering wheels and restraint systems.
Technical Paper

Abdominal Injury Prediction in Lateral Impact - An Analysis of the Biofidelity of the Euro-SID Abdomen

European safety community has been actively involved in side impact research and has made significant contributions. One of the most recent is the development of the Euro-SID (European Side impact Dummy) which contains an abdominal injury detection element. This report details an analysis of the dummy abdomen and the cadaver tests upon which it is based. Specifically, the analysis examines the empirical basis, and final design of the Euro-SID abdomen with the following conclusions proffered: 1) The inclusion of an abdominal injury prediction element in the European Side impact Dummy is an important advancement in anthropomorphic dummy design. 2) The peak force-maximum compression criterion chosen as the predictor of injury is valid, given the results from the 8 cadaver tests upon which it is based.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the ES-2re Dummy in Biofidelity, Component, and Full Vehicle Crash Tests

This technical paper presents the results from tests conducted with the ES-2re, a version of the ES-2 side impact dummy that was modified by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to improve its performance in crash tests. Through the series of biofidelity tests conducted on the ES-2re, described in International Standards Organization (ISO) Technical Report (TR)9790 (1999), the OSRP observed a final overall biofidelity ranking of 4.1 for the ES-2re, which corresponds to an ISO classification of “marginal.” The biofidelity of the ES-2re is compared to that of the ES-2 and the WorldSID. Repeatability was also evaluated on the ES-2re based on the biofidelity test data. Additional pendulum tests were performed to assess the response of the dummy in oblique loading conditions, and results indicate that oblique loading from the front leads to significantly reduced rib deflections.
Technical Paper

Development of a Reusable, Rate-Sensitive Abdomen for the Hybrid III Family of Dummies

The objective of this work was to develop a reusable, rate-sensitive dummy abdomen with abdominal injury assessment capability. The primary goal for the abdomen developed was to have good biofidelity in a variety of loading situations that might be encountered in an automotive collision. This paper presents a review of previous designs for crash dummy abdomens, a description of the development of the new abdomen, results of testing with the new abdomen and instrumentation, and suggestions for future work. The biomechanical response targets for the new abdomen were determined from tests of the mid abdomen done in a companion biomechanical study. The response of the abdominal insert is an aggregate response of the dummy’s entire abdominal area and does not address differences in upper versus lower abdominal response, solid versus hollow organs, or organ position or mobility.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Properties of the Shoulder Ligaments under Dynamic Loading

Thirty-three fresh human cadaver shoulders were harvested and bone-ligament-bone specimens of acromioclavicular joint, coracoclavicular joint and sternoclavicular joint were obtained. A test fixture and clamps specifically designed for this ligament study and a high-speed Instron machine were used. One quasi-static rate (nominally 0.1 %/sec) and two high rates (nominally, high rate 1 = 40,000 %/sec and high rate 2 = 15,000 %/sec) were used in this study. In the acromioclavicular joint tests, ligament failure was the most common failure mode. Bone fractures occurred most often at the clavicle rather than acromion. In the coracoclavicular joint tests, the majority of specimens failed at the ligament and bone fractures occurred at the coracoid. In the sternoclavicular joint tests, the specimen failed at the bone in most cases. In the acromioclavicular joint and coracoclavicular joint tests, high rate 2 tests and quasi-static tests had more bone fracture cases than high rate 1 tests.
Technical Paper

Biomechanics of 4-Point Seat Belt Systems in Farside Impacts

The biomechanical behavior of a harness style 4-point seat belt system in farside impacts was investigated through dummy and post mortem human subject tests. Specifically, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inboard shoulder belt portion of a 4-point seat belt on the risk of vertebral and soft-tissue neck injuries during simulated farside impacts. Two series of sled tests simulating farside impacts were completed with crash dummies of different sizes, masses and designs to determine the forces and moments on the neck associated with loading of the shoulder belt. The tests were also performed to help determine the appropriate dummy to use in further testing. The BioSID and SID-IIs reasonably simulated the expected kinematics response and appeared to be reasonable dummies to use for further testing. Analysis also showed that dummy injury measures were lower than injury assessment reference values used in development of side impact airbags.
Technical Paper

Biomechanics of 4-Point Seat Belt Systems in Frontal Impacts

The biomechanical behavior of 4-point seat belt systems was investigated through MADYMO modeling, dummy tests and post mortem human subject tests. This study was conducted to assess the effect of 4-point seat belts on the risk of thoracic injury in frontal impacts, to evaluate the ability to prevent submarining under the lap belt using 4-point seat belts, and to examine whether 4-point belts may induce injuries not typically observed with 3-point seat belts. The performance of two types of 4-point seat belts was compared with that of a pretensioned, load-limited, 3-point seat belt. A 3-point belt with an extra shoulder belt that “crisscrossed” the chest (X4) appeared to add constraint to the torso and increased chest deflection and injury risk. Harness style shoulder belts (V4) loaded the body in a different biomechanical manner than 3-point and X4 belts.
Technical Paper

Age Effects on Thoracic Injury Tolerance

It is well known that the ability of the human body to withstand trauma is a function of its inherent strength, i.e., the strength of the bones and soft tissues. Yet, the properties of the bones and tissues change as a function of the individual's age. In this paper age effects on thoracic injury tolerances are studied by analyzing the mechanical properties of human bones and soft tissues and by examining experimental results found in the literature of thoracic impact tests to human cadavers. This work suggests that the adult age range can be divided into three age groups. Using piece-wise linear regression analyses, it has been determined that the reduction in injury tolerance from the “young” age group to the “elderly” group is approximately 20% under blunt frontal impact loading conditions and is as much as 70% under belt loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Shoulder Injury and Response Due to Lateral Glenohumeral Joint Impact: An Analysis of Combined Data

To date, several lateral impact studies (Bolte et al., 2000, 2003, Marth, 2002 and Compigne et al., 2004) have been performed on the shoulder to determine the response characteristics and injury threshold of the shoulder complex. Our understanding of the biomechanical response and injury tolerance of the shoulder would be improved if the results of these tests were combined. From a larger data base shoulder injury tolerance criteria can be developed as well as corridors for side impact dummies. Data from the study by Marth (2002, 12 tests) was combined with data from the previous studies. Twenty-two low speed tests (4.5 ± 0.7 m/s) and 9 high speed tests (6.7 ± 0.7 m/s) were selected from the combined data for developing corridors. Shoulder force, deflection and T1y acceleration corridors were developed using a minimization of cumulative variance technique.
Technical Paper

The Biomechanics of Human Ribs: Material and Structural Properties from Dynamic Tension and Bending Tests

The purpose of this study was to quantify both the tensile material properties and structural response of human ribs in order to determine which variables contribute to regional variation in the strength of human ribs. This was done by performing 94 matched tests on human rib specimens; 46 tension coupon tests, 48 three-point bending tests. Contralateral matched specimens were dissected from anterior and lateral regions of ribs 4 through 7 of six male fresh frozen post mortem human subjects ranging from 42 to 81 years of age. Tension coupons were taken from one side of the thorax, while three-point bending specimens were taken from the opposite side as the tension coupons at corresponding anatomical locations. The results of the tension coupon testing showed that there were no significant differences with respect to region or rib level: ultimate stress (p=0.90; p=0.53), ultimate strain (p=0.49; p=0.86), or modulus (p=0.72; p=0.81).