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Technical Paper

Modeling of a 6×4 Tractor and Trailers for Use in Real Time Hardware in the Loop Simulation for ESC Testing

2013-04-08
2013-01-0693
The 2010 accident statistics NHTSA's report reveals that large trucks have a fatal accident involvement rate of 1.22 vehicles per 100 million vehicle miles traveled compared to 1.53 for light trucks and 1.18 for passenger cars. ...This translates to a fatal accident involvement rate of 32.35 vehicles per 100,000 registered large trucks compared to 17.02 for light trucks and 13.09 for passenger cars.
Technical Paper

An Investigation, Via Simulation, of Vehicle Characteristics that Contribute to Steering Maneuver Induced Rollover

1992-02-01
920585
The goal of this research was to find vehicle characteristics which may contribute to steering maneuver induced rollover accidents. This work involved studying vehicle handling dynamics using the Vehicle Dynamics Analysis, Non-Linear (VDANL) computer simulation. ...The metrics were correlated, using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) software and logistic regression, with single vehicle accident data from the state of Michigan for the years 1986 through 1988. The analysis found that the vehicle directional response metrics were not good predictors of the observed rollovers per single vehicle accident rate for each make/model. ...The analysis found that the vehicle directional response metrics were not good predictors of the observed rollovers per single vehicle accident rate for each make/model. Stepwise logistic regression was performed including environmental and other, non-directional response, vehicle metrics in addition to the directional response metrics.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Electronic Pedestrian Detection Systems for School Buses

1996-12-01
960518
Most fatalities due to school bus accidents involve pedestrians being struck by the bus. All too frequently the school bus strikes a disembarking passenger because the driver was unaware of their presence near the bus. ...To try to prevent this type of accident, two Doppler microwave radar-based pedestrian detection systems have been developed and are commercially available.
Technical Paper

Measured Vehicle Inertial Parameters -NHTSA's Data Through September 1992

1993-03-01
930897
This paper is primarily a printed listing of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) Light Vehicle Inertial Parameter Data Base. This data base contains measured vehicle inertial parameters from all of the 356 tests performed to date with NHTSA's Inertial Parameter Measurement Device (IPMD) that have resulted in data thought to be of general interest. Additionally, the data base contains tilt table data from all 168 vehicle tests performed to date using NHTSA's Tilt Table. The paper also summarizes the history of modifications to the IPMD and discusses how these modifications have improved the accuracy of IPMD measurements.
Technical Paper

Measured Vehicle Inertial Parameters-NHTSA’s Data Through November 1998

1999-03-01
1999-01-1336
This paper is primarily a printed listing of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s (NHTSA) Light Vehicle Inertial Parameter Database. This database contains measured vehicle inertial parameters from SAE Paper 930897, “Measured Vehicle Inertial Parameters -NHTSA’s Data Through September 1992” (1), as well as parameters obtained by NHTSA since 1992. The proceeding paper contained 414 entries. This paper contains 82 new entries, for a total of 496. The majority of the entries contain complete vehicle inertial parameters, some of the entries contain tilt table results only, and some entries contain both inertia and tilt table results. This paper provides a brief discussion of the accuracy of inertial measurements. Also included are selected graphs of quantities listed in the database for some of the 1998 model year vehicles tested.
Technical Paper

A Reliability Theory Approach to Estimate the Potential Effectiveness of a Crash Avoidance System to Support Lane Change Decisions

1997-02-24
970454
This paper presents the methodology and initial results of an effectiveness estimation effort applied to lane change crash avoidance systems. The lane change maneuver was considered to be composed of a decision phase and an execution phase. The decision phase begins when the driver desires to perform a lane change. It continues until the driver turns the handwheel to move the vehicle laterally into the new lane or until the driver decides to postpone the lane change. During the decision phase, the driver gathers information about the road scene ahead and either present or upcoming traffic or obstacles in the destination lane. The execution phase begins when the driver starts the move into the new lane and continues until the vehicle has been laterally stabilized in the destination lane. If the driver aborts the lane change once started, the maneuver execution phase concludes when the vehicle has been laterally stabilized in the original lane.
Technical Paper

The Variation of Static Rollover Metrics With Vehicle Loading and Between Similar Vehicles

1992-02-01
920583
This paper examines variability of two static rollover metrics, Static Stability Factor (SSF) and Tilt Table Ratio (TTR), due to vehicle loading and vehicle-to-vehicle variation. Variability due to loading was determined by measuring SSF and TTR for 14 vehicles/configurations at multiple loadings. Up to five loadings were used per vehicle/configuration tested. Vehicle-to-vehicle variability was studied by measuring SSF and TTR for ten unmodified vehicles of each of four make/models. Five baseline vehicles, as similar as was feasible, were tested. The other five test vehicles spanned the range of submodels and options available. In general, both SSF and TTR decreased as occupants were added to a vehicle. The change in SSF and TTR per occupant was fairly consistent, with changes in TTR being more consistent. Placing ballast on the floor of the cargo compartment had a mixed effect on SSF, raising it for some vehicles and lowering it for others.
Technical Paper

Hardware Evaluation of Heavy Truck Side and Rear Object Detection Systems

1995-02-01
951010
This paper focuses on two types of electronics-based object detection systems for heavy truck applications: those sensing the presence of objects to the rear of the vehicle, and those sensing the presence of objects on the right side of the vehicle. The rearward sensing systems are intended to aid drivers when backing their vehicles, typically at very low “crawl” speeds. Six rear object detection systems that were commercially available at the time that this study was initiated were evaluated. The right side looking systems are intended primarily as supplements to side view mirror systems and as an aid for detecting the presence of adjacent vehicles when making lane changes or merging maneuvers. Four side systems, two commercially available systems and two prototypes, were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Automobile Maneuvers Using Describing Function Models

1982-02-01
820306
Two computer models of drivers using describing function strategies have been successfully implemented in conjunction with a recently developed, all digital vehicle simulation. The driver models determine control inputs to the vehicle simulation by means of feedback loops. Two feedback loops, an outer one on lateral position and an inner one on heading angle are used to determine the steering commands needed to move the vehicle to the desired path. One feedback loop on forward velocity is used to determine braking and acceleration commands. Full technical details of the method of implementation for each of the models are given. The results of sample simulations of the driver-vehicle system are shown and the results discussed.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Automobile Maneuvers Using Preview-Predictor Models

1982-02-01
820305
Two computer models of drivers using preview predictor strategies have been successfully implemented in conjunction with a recently developed, all digital vehicle simulation. The driver models determine control inputs to the vehicle simulation by first predicting future vehicle position and velocity and then determining the steering and braking commands necessary to move the vehicle from the predicted to the desired path. Full technical details of the method of implementation for each of the models are given. The results of sample simulations of the driver-vehicle system using each driver model are shown. Problems of each model are discussed.
Technical Paper

Human Performance Evaluation of Heavy Truck Side Object Detection Systems

1995-02-01
951011
Side object detection systems (SODS) are collision warning systems which alert drivers to the presence of traffic alongside their vehicle within defined detection zones. The intent of SODS is to reduce collisions during lane changes and merging maneuvers. This study examined the effect of right SODS on the performance of commercial vehicle drivers as a means of assessing the impact of these systems on safety. In this study, eight professional truck drivers drove a tractor-semitrailer equipped with four different sets of SODS hardware or side view mirror configurations. These subjects had no previous experience with SODS. Subjects were tested with two right SODS (a radar-based system and an ultrasonic-based system), a fender-mounted convex mirror, and, for comparison, standard side view mirrors only. For each case, subjects drove the test vehicle through a set route for one day.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Validating Vehicle Dynamics Simulations

1990-02-01
900128
This paper presents a methodology for validating vehicle stability and control computer simulations. Validation is defined as showing that, within some specified operating range of the vehicle, a simulation's predictions of a vehicle's responses agree with the actual measured vehicle's responses to within some specified level of accuracy. The method uses repeated experimental runs at each test condition to generate sufficient data for statistical analyses. The acquisition and reduction of experimental data, and the processing path for simulation data, are described. The usefulness of time domain validation for steady state and slowly varying transients is discussed. The importance of frequency domain validation for thoroughly validating a simulation is shown. Both qualitative and quantitative methods for the comparison of the simulation predictions with the actual test measurements are developed.
Technical Paper

An Ergonomic Evaluation of School Bus Cross View Mirror Systems

1992-02-01
920401
This research studied the problems and effectiveness of existing cross view school bus mirror systems. Interviews were conducted with 49 school bus drivers to ascertain their evaluations of the use and perceived effectiveness of various cross view mirror systems. Six commercially available cross view mirrors were randomly selected for testing. These mirrors were used to make the seven cross view mirror systems (each with 2 to 4 cross view mirrors) which were evaluated. The optical properties of each cross view mirror and the field of view (FOV) of each mirror system were measured in a laboratory environment. Mirror system FOVs were determined with the mirrors mounted on each of three different types of school buses. The directly observable FOV of each bus was also determined. Driver child detection field studies were conducted using eight bus drivers and six mirror systems with simulated children.
Technical Paper

Human Factors Evaluation of Existing Side Collision Avoidance System Driver Interfaces

1995-11-01
952659
This paper describes the assessment of driver interfaces of a type of electronics-based collision avoidance systems that has been recently developed to assist drivers of vehicles in avoiding certain types of collisions. The electronics-based crash avoidance systems studied were those which detect the presence of objects located on the left and/or right sides of the vehicle, called Side Collision Avoidance Systems, or SCAS. As many SCAS as could be obtained, including several pre-production prototypes, were acquired and tested. The testing focused on measuring sensor performance and assessing the qualities of the driver interfaces. This paper presents only the results of the driver interface assessments. The sensor performance data are presented in the NHTSA report “Development of Performance Specifications for Collision Avoidance Systems for Lane Changing, Merging, and Backing - Task 3 - Test of Existing Hardware Systems” [1].
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