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Technical Paper

Real-world car accident reconstruction methods for crash avoidance system research

2000-06-12
2000-05-0221
The paper describes the multidisciplinary systemic approach leading to the comprehensive methodology used in accident reconstruction in order to determine the best scenario, and to assess initial car speeds, paths and events in the different phases of the accident. ...Upon this first step, a more accurate accident simulation can be calculated with a reconstruction software. Results and examples of applications are given in the most common pre-crash situations (curves, straight roads and intersections). ...The paper describes the multidisciplinary systemic approach leading to the comprehensive methodology used in accident reconstruction in order to determine the best scenario, and to assess initial car speeds, paths and events in the different phases of the accident. This has already been carried out for about 400 car crashes with car occupant injuries (including 6% fatal and 10% severely injured).
Technical Paper

Predicting Weight Distribution from Occupant Load Using a Monte Carlo Method

2012-09-24
2012-01-1925
Actual occupant weight distributions versus certified weight per occupant seat causes a potential conflict between a vehicle's in-use weight versus its certified GVWR. A Monte Carlo method using a midsized bus example was conducted to determine the statistical probability that adult passengers and rated cargo would result in weight distributions that exceeded tire load capability, Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR), or GVWR.
Book

Commercial Vehicle Accident Reconstruction and Investigation 2nd Edition

2010-09-27
Reconstructing commercial vehicle accidents is a complex task that is often misunderstood or misinterpreted. Frequently, mistakes are made in determining the vehicle's ability to brake efficiently, the engine speeds and the loading condition. ...This reference book identifies the proper techniques you should use in order to correctly assess a commercial vehicle accident scene. The authors discuss in great detail the unique aspects of commercial vehicle operation, performance and regulations. ...If you are interested in reconstructing or investigating commercial vehicle accidents, or if you are already involved in this but would like a better understanding of the issues, this book will prove to be valuable tool.
Technical Paper

Protocol for the Examination of School Bus Vehicles to Support Accident Investigation and Reconstruction

1998-02-23
980374
This paper provides a protocol for the examination of school bus vehicles to support accident investigation and reconstruction. The topics covered are generally beyond what is normally conducted during a routine commercial motor coach accident investigation. ...The topics covered are generally beyond what is normally conducted during a routine commercial motor coach accident investigation. Included are suggested points on administrative preparation, information research, logistics, examination equipment preparation, photography, and safety precautions.
Technical Paper

Accident Reconstruction with Data Recorded by Electronic Control Units in Vehicles with a Pre-crash Safety System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1440
Data recorded by vehicle-mounted electronic control units (ECUs) are highly useful in traffic accident reconstruction. In this context, event data recorders (EDRs) are airbag ECU components used to log information from crash events, typically providing data on speed, accelerator operation, RPMs and brake lamp activation for a period of around 5 s before a collision. ...Thus, it is important to check the accuracy of EDR speed data in accident reconstruction. Meanwhile, pre-crash safety systems (PCSs) are also becoming more widespread in automobile usage today. ...Such systems automatically apply braking in hazardous situations, and the relevant data recorded in the ECU are promising in the field of accident reconstruction. This study involved physical tests in the form of simulated rear-end collisions and the collection of recorded PCS data at the post-test stage.
Technical Paper

The Use of Stationary Object Radar Sensor Data from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) in Accident Reconstruction

2016-04-05
2016-01-1465
The data from these sensors is unique because it measures objective environment information surrounding a vehicle, which can play a role in reconstructing and understanding the contributing factors of an accident. As more vehicles become equipped with advanced safety systems and the requisite sensors for automated vehicles, accident investigators will need to become familiar with system functionality, the data that the sensors measure and may record, as well as the limitations of that data in order to effectively and accurately analyze a crash. ...As more vehicles become equipped with advanced safety systems and the requisite sensors for automated vehicles, accident investigators will need to become familiar with system functionality, the data that the sensors measure and may record, as well as the limitations of that data in order to effectively and accurately analyze a crash. ...In addition, the authors propose in general how data from radars could be used to elucidate the location of fixed objects in the environment surrounding a vehicle for the purpose of understanding an accident.
Technical Paper

Side Impacts to the Passenger Compartment — Clinical Studies from Field Accident Investigations

1989-02-01
890379
The side impact, recently and currently the subject to of much debate, controversy and proposed NHTSA rule making, is a difficult type of crash to significantly reduce serious injuries and fatalites. Results from real-world crash investigations presents a confusing picture for the near-side passenger compartment crash. A direct relationship between the amount of crush and injury severity levels (MAIS) is not apparent. Exemplar cases of tow-a-way/injury crashes are presented at all AIS injury level of drivers in crashes with direct driver door crush damage.
Technical Paper

Computer Program for Reconstruction of Highway Accidents

1973-02-01
730980
In one of the presented applications to a staged collision, the initial conditions were kept unknown until completion of the reconstruction process. Results of sample applications to actual highway accidents are included. ...The Simulation Model of Automobile Collisions (SMAC) computer program has been developed for the purpose of achieving uniformity in the use of analytical techniques for interpretation of physical evidence in investigations of highway accidents. The comprehensive output information of the SMAC program (kinematics, tire tracks, and vehicle damage) permits extensive, detailed comparisons with physical evidence in the iterative runs used to achieve a “best fit,” and the predicted vehicle responses provide a basis for relatively refined categorization of occupant exposures. ...Computer graphics displays of reconstructed accidents, including rest positions, tracks, and damage, are presented.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Axle Shaft Failures for Use in Crash Reconstruction

2005-04-11
2005-01-1193
The causes, conditions and circumstances of axle shaft failures are analyzed for use in reconstructing a variety of crashes. A literature search was performed to determine the frequency and the role of vehicle defects, such as axle shaft failures, to crash causation. Real world case studies of axle shaft failures are presented. Static testing force levels required to fracture axle shafts are compared to lateral forces encountered under normal and crash avoidance driving conditions. Vehicle and roadway physical evidence is presented when axle shafts are caused to “fracture” under dynamic testing. Results of the dynamic testing are compared to real world case studies.
Technical Paper

Motorist Head and Body Impact Analysis, Methodologies and Reconstruction

1985-02-25
850097
Motorist impact marks and embossments provide valuable data relating to evaluation of injury, crash energy management, occupant positioning and collision severity. Research techniques presented enable analysis of these impacts. Biomechanical techniques for motorist head impact analysis are presented along with static crush calibration and dynamic impact replication of passenger compartment head dents. Evaluation and identification of occupant induced marks on restraint systems are discussed as well as determination of who was driving. Ejection findings of the fifties and sixties are clarified by case studies that show how vehicle design changes may switch the portal of ejection from doors to windows.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the Relationship Between Active Safety and Accident Prevention

1978-01-01
785046
Determination of driver reaction and vehicle response to driving incidents involving artificially-induced danger and surprise; such tests can safely be conducted on driving courses. 4. Reconstruction and evaluation of traffic accidents through use of questionnaires; Daimler-Benz has already made use of such questionnaires. ...Driver error is the cause of most accidents. Yet "active safety" is difficult to analyze due to the complexity of the processes involved and no unanimity of analytical procedures exists.
Technical Paper

The New Approach of In-Depth-Accident-Investigation based on the Methodology for Traffic Accident Database on Scenarios TADS

2016-04-05
2016-01-1472
Such simulations should, of course, be based on real world scenario such as the pre-crash phase of real world accidents. Several methodologies for building up accident scenarios have been developed in the past. ...This paper shows a new method for generating pre-crash scenarios directly from the reconstruction of the accident by using the software PC-Crash1. The new method was developed by the Medical University Hannover (MHH) and the Fraunhofer Institute for Transportation Dresden (Fraunhofer IVI). ...It is based on transferring all information (participant-, vehicle-, environment- and motion-data) from the reconstruction file into a scenario-database. In order to analyse the pre-crash situation of real-world accidents and changing boundary conditions (e.g. introduction of certain active safety systems), a socalled Pre Crash Matrix (PCM) was developed.
Technical Paper

Typical Pedestrian Accident Scenarios in China and Crash Severity Mitigation by Autonomous Emergency Braking Systems

2015-04-14
2015-01-1464
The objective of this work was to describe typical accident scenarios for pedestrian accidents in China. In-depth accident analysis was conducted to support development of test procedures for assessing Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems. ...The China In-depth Accident Study (CIDAS) database was searched from 2011 to 2014 for pedestrian accidents. A total of 358 pedestrian accidents were collected from the on-site in-depth investigation in the first phase of CIDAS project (2011-2014). ...A total of 358 pedestrian accidents were collected from the on-site in-depth investigation in the first phase of CIDAS project (2011-2014).
Technical Paper

Accident Research and Frontal Testing

1985-01-01
856058
In classifying accidents, more attention must be given to the different sequences in car-to-car and single-car accidents and to damage and strain criteria. From the accident researcher's point of view, the following recommendations are outlined: a) it is not sufficient to describe the real-life frontal accident by one standardized test; b) the frontal fixed barrier test should be used as the main reference test; c) an angled crash or an offset test is necessary, which has to be carried out in such a way to simulate the problem of one-sided intrusion of the passenger compartment; and d) in a third test configuration, a supplementary car-to-movable-barrier test is desirable ...In classifying accidents, more attention must be given to the different sequences in car-to-car and single-car accidents and to damage and strain criteria. ...From the accident researcher's point of view, the following recommendations are outlined: a) it is not sufficient to describe the real-life frontal accident by one standardized test; b) the frontal fixed barrier test should be used as the main reference test; c) an angled crash or an offset test is necessary, which has to be carried out in such a way to simulate the problem of one-sided intrusion of the passenger compartment; and d) in a third test configuration, a supplementary car-to-movable-barrier test is desirable
Technical Paper

A Realistic Approach to Automobile Accident Avoidance Training

1977-02-01
770802
A different approach to training automobile accident avoidance driving skills is being developed. It is structured to provide students the opportunity to practice selecting and implementing effective crash avoidance strategies in response to realistic conflict situations that often precede actual accidents. ...It is structured to provide students the opportunity to practice selecting and implementing effective crash avoidance strategies in response to realistic conflict situations that often precede actual accidents. Two new teaching techniques have been developed to provide this realistic experience in dealing with both single-car (the student driver's) and two-car situations.
Technical Paper

Discerning the State of Crash Avoidance in the Accident Experience

1985-01-01
856033
This paper addresses the risks of motor vehicle involvement in highway accidents. Such risks are determined from U.S. accident experience in the past 10 years. Risks are analyzed as a function of vehicle type, car market class, make, nameplate, and model year for accidents of various types and various severities. ...Risks are analyzed as a function of vehicle type, car market class, make, nameplate, and model year for accidents of various types and various severities. Both absolute risks, per unit exposure, and relative risks are addressed. ...Single driver accidents and rollovers. Whether pre- or post-impact, receive special attention due to their risk sensitivity to car class.
Technical Paper

Discerning the State of Crashworthiness in the Accident Experience

1985-01-01
856069
This paper addresses the risks of occupant casualties in highway accidents. Such risks are determined from U.S. accident experience in the past 10 years. Risks are analyzed as a function of vehicle type, car market class, make, nameplate, and model year for crashes of various impact types and various severities.
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