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Technical Paper

Stereoscopic Animation for Accident Reconstruction

Stereoscopic animation is presented. The fundamentals behind the technology are shown to be rooted in common video hardware and software. The elements of programming for separating an animation into its components and creating three-dimensional frames are described in principle. The use of the technologyin sightlinequestions, distanceperception, occupant dynamics problems, and machine motion is discussed.
Technical Paper

Accident Reconstruction Using Data Retrieval from Crash-Test Video Images

The main source for the estimation of stiffness coefficients to be used in accident reconstruction calculations is a very large database of crash-test related information from NHTSA. ...This methodology allowed to extend the existing database of US cars to European models and to significantly improve the calculation of the dissipated energies associated to the permanent damage caused by accidents.
Technical Paper

Accident Avoidance-Crosswind Sensitivity of Some Streamlined Cars

This paper is based on a detailed analysis of real-life situations and is intended to highlight some of the problems that can occur with modern lightweight cars when their aerodynamic shape approaches that of an aerofoil. The problem of disappointing straight line stability when travelling at speed may be more pronounced in the United Kingdom than in Central Europe where one of the cars so flawed was conceived and developed. The topography, significantly higher crosswind speeds, the alignment of the main trunk roads relative to the prevailing winds of high speed, and the proneness for such winds to have extraordinary gust levels are cited as an explanation for the difficulties experienced by motorists when the low drag, front-engine, rear-wheel-drive car was launched in 1982/83. Progress has been made to minimise the handling problems under high speed and crosswind situations, but there is little chance of achieving better driver skill.
Technical Paper

Motorist Head and Body Impact Analysis, Methodologies and Reconstruction

Motorist impact marks and embossments provide valuable data relating to evaluation of injury, crash energy management, occupant positioning and collision severity. Research techniques presented enable analysis of these impacts. Biomechanical techniques for motorist head impact analysis are presented along with static crush calibration and dynamic impact replication of passenger compartment head dents. Evaluation and identification of occupant induced marks on restraint systems are discussed as well as determination of who was driving. Ejection findings of the fifties and sixties are clarified by case studies that show how vehicle design changes may switch the portal of ejection from doors to windows.
Technical Paper

A Method for Determining Accident Specific Crush Stiffness Coefficients

Engineers are often asked to perform an accident reconstruction when there are neither published stiffness coefficients for the side structure of an involved vehicle nor crash test data from which to determine the stiffness. ...The CRASH3 computer program increasingly is being used by engineers as a tool to reconstruct automobile accidents. The damage analysis portion of CRASH3 provides a useful means for quantifying the change of velocity, ΔV, that was experienced by a vehicle during the collision phase of a traffic accident. ...The damage analysis portion of CRASH3 provides a useful means for quantifying the change of velocity, ΔV, that was experienced by a vehicle during the collision phase of a traffic accident. The degree of usefulness of the damage analysis portion of the program, however, is dependent upon the availability of valid crush stiffness coefficients.
Technical Paper

Severe Coach Accident Survey

Data about severe coach accidents are still limited. More knowledge in this field is required to define safety priorities that designers and manufactures need to consider in future vehicles. ...Despite the good safety level of coaches, some spectacular accidents nevertheless occur causing serious injuries and death to the users, and these are often brought to the public's attention by the media. ...This survey is based on all the fatal coach accidents that occurred in France between 1978 and 1984. The paper describes the causes and accident configurations and analyzes the injury mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Side Mirror Noise with Adaptive Spectral Reconstruction

A new method called Adaptive Spectral Reconstruction (ASR) for the stochastic reconstruction of broadband aeroacoustic sources starting from steady CFD analyses is presented and applied to the evaluation of the noise radiated by a model automotive side mirror.
Technical Paper

Input Force Reconstruction for Vehicle Durability

In vehicle durability, the determination of accurate input forces can lead to a greater reliance on numerical simulations using analytical models and reduce the need for more expensive and time consuming experimental testing. Traditionally, the input forces are directly measured using load cells. However, in many instances, the direct measurement of force by load cells is either impossible or inaccurate, such as in the case of vehicle body and engine mount loads. To improve the techniques on automobile durability analysis, there is a need to be able to construct the input forces indirectly; i.e., to calculate the input forces by measuring the subsequent structural responses. In essence, the instrumented structure becomes its own load cell. The current study attempts to calculate the body mount loads of a light truck vehicle using the proposed technique. A finite element model of a vehicle body structure is used to locate the areas of load sensitivity.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian Involved Traffic Collision Reconstruction Methodology

A pedestrian involved traffic collision is generally less fully understood than the “typical” car-to-car broadside intersection collision. For this reason, the analysis of the pedestrian involved collision is, in many respects, more complicated and demanding. This paper addresses the typical sequence of events in a pedestrian involved collision and the movement of the vehicle and pedestrian body from pre-impact through the collision to their final points of rest. Methods for the analysis of the pedestrian involved collision, including a review of several different techniques for calculating vehicle impact velocity are also presented. A comparison of crash test data to different forms of analysis is provided as a frame of reference for the reader in evaluating these methods.
Technical Paper

Professional Standards, Cockpit Resource Management and Accident, Prevention

At the same time, pilot Professional Standards Committees (PSC) are also being acknowledged as having a definite place, along with Cockpit Resource Management, in aircraft accident prevention. This paper examines the similarities and differences between CRM and PSC as well as their relationship to each other in positively affecting flight safety. ...Lack of leadership, followership, i.e. teamwork, and loss of situational awareness have probably been cited more in the majority of today's human performance related accidents than any other causes. With its emphasis on behavioral modification to enhance crew performance, CRM has certainly had some real success stories. ...The highly publicized 1989 United Airlines' accidents, near Honolulu, Hawaii and at Sioux City, Iowa, are two prime examples of crew teamwork at its absolute best under extremely trying conditions.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Accident and Laboratory Impacts to Energy-Absorbing Steering Assemblies

Data are presented for 19 frontal-force collisions involving vehicles with collapsible steering columns with collision severity rating from minor to very severe (1–7) and an injury severity index from minor to fatal. Injury results are compared to laboratory experiments in which a force of 1800 lb distributed over the rim and hub was measured for a fairly stiff wheel and collapsible column combination. When the steering wheel did not deform excessively and the force reached the 1800 lb level as evidenced by column collapse, there were no serious thoracic injuries. Gross deformation of the steering wheel with exposed sharp spoke ends or small diameter hub resulted in serious abdominal and thoracic injuries. Two cases of hood intrusion are presented, each of which resulted in fatalities.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Non-Lacerative Windshield in Case of Accident and Under Environmental Conditions

The four-layer laminated Securiflex windshield has been tested in simulated collisions at the Wayne State University up to 40 mph Barrier Equivalent Velocities, to demonstrate that it causes no laceration. has been exposed to usual and extreme environmental conditions to demonstrate its serviceability in field use. The new windshield consists of a conventional laminated construction (glass/high penetration resistant interlayer/glass) combined with a 0.5 mm innerlayer of plastic. Glass is used on the outer surface of the windshield to withstand the abrasion and scratching of sand, windshield wipers and cleaning. The laminated construction prevents penetration and provides a pocket or cushion action to decelerate the head without injury. The innerlayer is made of a special plastic film which protects the face of the occupants against laceration and eye injury during head impact.