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Technical Paper

Application of the Monte Carlo Methods for Stability Analysis within the Accident Reconstruction Software PC-CRASH

2003-03-03
2003-01-0488
As in most accident reconstruction cases, several parameters, like ground friction or inter-vehicle friction are not well known, as well as many vehicle or driver related parameters. ...A method was developed, which allows one to vary multiple parameters based on a Monte Carlo method. The error within the fulfillment of the target function can thus easily be used as a quality indicator for the selected initial conditions. ...Two algorithms are presented, both based on the Monte Carlo approach. The first one serves as an alternative for the optimizer tool and is included in the current version of PC-Crash.
Technical Paper

Conducting Monte Carlo Analysis with Spreadsheet Programs

2003-03-03
2003-01-0487
Monte Carlo analysis has been shown to be a powerful tool for evaluating confidence limits and probability distributions for values calculated during the analysis of vehicle accidents. ...This paper presents a method of using the tools provided with most simple spreadsheet programs to conduct Monte Carlo analysis with both evenly distributed and normally distributed variables for cases where the equations can be expressed in closed form. ...Monte Carlo analysis has been shown to be a powerful tool for evaluating confidence limits and probability distributions for values calculated during the analysis of vehicle accidents. Using this tool has generally required specialized software. This paper presents a method of using the tools provided with most simple spreadsheet programs to conduct Monte Carlo analysis with both evenly distributed and normally distributed variables for cases where the equations can be expressed in closed form.
Technical Paper

On the Concept of Inter-Vehicle Friction and Its Application in Automobile Accident Reconstruction

2007-04-16
2007-01-0744
Occasionally, an accident reconstruction analyst is confronted with the task of reconstructing an accident with configurations that do not lend themselves to straightforward analytical methods. ...The analyst may often turn to accident reconstruction software such as the various versions of SMAC and some impulse-momentum approaches like PC-Crash and VCRware. ...This can lead to the modification of the inter-vehicle friction value to tune the simulation result; typically in an effort to force the final rest positions of the collision partners to match documented accident scene evidence. In this paper, the concept and application of the inter-vehicle friction coefficient is examined.
Technical Paper

Statistical Error Control for Radiative Software Based on Monte Carlo Methods

1993-07-01
932258
This paper presents a general error model for MCRT algorithms, which is later applied to the calculation of some basic radiative entities. Furthermore, some issues related to the implementation of such models in a software tool are discussed. Finally, the accuracy control methods are applied to the more complex case of the heat flux absorbed in a given radiative face. Although only the relative error is considered through the discussion, similar results can be derived for the absolute error.
Technical Paper

Stereoscopic Animation for Accident Reconstruction

1993-03-01
930905
Stereoscopic animation is presented. The fundamentals behind the technology are shown to be rooted in common video hardware and software. The elements of programming for separating an animation into its components and creating three-dimensional frames are described in principle. The use of the technologyin sightlinequestions, distanceperception, occupant dynamics problems, and machine motion is discussed.
Technical Paper

Computer-Aided Accident Reconstruction: Its Role in Court

1991-02-01
910370
The primary purpose of this paper is to sort out the several different categories of computer applications which are frequently lumped together as “accident reconstruction software,” and then to distinguish on the basis of these categories the arguments regarding the courtroom use of data and images generated by this software. ...The paper also contains an attempt-based on current judicial scrutiny of scientific evidence-to predict the ultimate consensus which will emerge regarding the evidentiary use of computer-aided accident reconstruction results. Finally, there is a brief review of the present judicial acceptance of such results among the various U.S. and Canadian jurisdictions. ...As the computer software which has lightened and enlightened the work of the accident reconstructionist over the past several years moves into the courtroom, a debate has sprung up concerning the appropriateness of this latest form of scientific evidence.
Technical Paper

Low Cost PC-Based Accident Reconstruction Animation

1992-02-01
920752
Until recently, it was necessary to spend tens of thousands of dollars on hardware and software to produce computer generated accident reconstruction animations. Several software companies have now developed powerful 3-D animation for the PC, Mac, and Amiga machines.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Electronic Control Module Data in Accident Reconstruction

2000-03-06
2000-01-0466
This paper will briefly discuss the development of the diesel engine ECM from the late 1980's to the present with emphasis on the data recording capabilities related to vehicle accident reconstruction. In particular, vehicle diagnostic sensors which continuously monitor engine speed, vehicle speed, brake switch condition (on/off), clutch position (on/off), cruise switch condition (on/off), etc. will be discussed, as well as software capabilities which track rapid deceleration events (“quick stop occurrences”) and provide a “snapshot” of the vehicle's properties during the moments just prior to and after a collision. ...A heavy truck manufactured in the late 1990's is likely to be equipped with an electronic control module (ECM) which has the capability of being the truck's “flight recorder” in a serious accident. Extracting data from the ECM often answers critical questions regarding vehicle speed and the driver's actions leading up to, during and after a vehicle accident. ...Extracting data from the ECM often answers critical questions regarding vehicle speed and the driver's actions leading up to, during and after a vehicle accident. This paper will briefly discuss the development of the diesel engine ECM from the late 1980's to the present with emphasis on the data recording capabilities related to vehicle accident reconstruction.
Technical Paper

PC Based Accident Reconstruction Animation Using Autodesk 3D Studio

1992-02-01
920756
For sometime, accident reconstruction animation has been limited to graphic workstations running expensive animation software. ...This paper discusses how accident reconstruction animation is produced using a personal computer and Autodesk's 3D Studio. ...An overview of the 3D Studio software package is given, and the application of 3D Studio for accident reconstruction animation is described. Examples are given of the generation of three dimensional geometries, including accident sites and the vehicles involved.
Journal Article

Accuracy of SUAS Photogrammetry for Use in Accident Scene Diagramming

2015-04-14
2015-01-1426
Photogrammetry from images captured by terrestrial cameras and manned aircraft has been used for many years to model objects, create scale diagrams and measure distances for use in traffic accident investigation and reconstruction. Due to increasing capability and availability, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), including small UAS (SUAS), are becoming a valuable, cost effective tool for collecting aerial images for photogrammetric analysis. ...The results show the photogrammetric measurement of an accident scene from SUAS aerial imagery provides measurements with errors well below generally accepted ranges for accident reconstruction....The metric accuracy of scale accident scene diagrams created from SUAS imagery has yet to be compared to conventional measurement methods, such as total station and laser measurement systems, which are widely used by public safety officials and private consultants.
Technical Paper

Air Accident Investigation Programs - FDRV and AAIT

1997-10-01
975563
The Air Accident Investigation Tool (AAIT) allows simplified computer-reconstruction of air accidents. Both programs have been successfully applied to air accident/incident investigations.
Technical Paper

Computer Animation Techniques for Use in Collision Reconstruction

1992-02-01
920755
The use of computer animation in the analysis of automobile collisions provides a reconstructionist the ability to ‘see’ an object from any perspective and visually depict its movement in three-dimensional space. Although many computer animation programs are currently available, none of these off-the-shelf software and hardware combinations are directed specifically at animating vehicle or occupant motion in conjunction with a collision. Many computer programs, specifically created for modeling vehicle or occupant motion, are available, but these typically do not create visual images with the detail offered in computer animation programs. Analysts can generate the data for computer animation by using collision simulation programs along with computer spreadsheets. Techniques for calculating the data required for computer animation are discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Vehicle Identification in Motor Vehicle Accident Databases

2004-03-08
2004-01-1186
Motor vehicle accident databases provide valuable safety information about the real world crash experience for millions of motor vehicles. ...A study of VIN coding requirements and data entry patterns indicates that reliable accident vehicle identification can be accomplished by supplementing VIN decoding software to systematically minimize common transcription errors and invalid characters.
Technical Paper

Determination of the Critical Correlation Coefficient to Establish a Good Fit for Weibull and Log-Normal Failure Distributions

1999-03-01
1999-01-0057
Most software packages calculate the correlation coefficient, r, or the coefficient of determination, r2. Monte Carlo simulation was used to create and analyze several thousand data sets. By comparing r from a given sample to results obtained from Monte Carlo simulation, the goodness of fit of the sample can be determined. ...By comparing r from a given sample to results obtained from Monte Carlo simulation, the goodness of fit of the sample can be determined.
Technical Paper

Validation of Software Testing Results for Real-Time Vehicle Control Software

1995-08-01
951927
Monte Carlo black-box software testing of an experimental advanced vehicle control system revealed anomalous system behavior in certain slices of the real-time control system algorithm performance subspace. ...The validation experimental results provide confirming evidence for the hypothesis that Monte Carlo black-box software results are representative of the actual performance of the PATH lateral control system.
Technical Paper

Implementation of an Uncertainty Analysis Process to SEA Predictions

2007-05-15
2007-01-2312
A process is implemented to propagate uncertainties inherent to the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) modeling practice to variance in predictions. A Monte Carlo based approach is scripted for the VA-One environment to account for uncertainties in gross parameters of SEA model subsystems.
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