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Technical Paper

Accident Reconstruction with Data Recorded by Electronic Control Units in Vehicles with a Pre-crash Safety System

Data recorded by vehicle-mounted electronic control units (ECUs) are highly useful in traffic accident reconstruction. In this context, event data recorders (EDRs) are airbag ECU components used to log information from crash events, typically providing data on speed, accelerator operation, RPMs and brake lamp activation for a period of around 5 s before a collision. ...Thus, it is important to check the accuracy of EDR speed data in accident reconstruction. Meanwhile, pre-crash safety systems (PCSs) are also becoming more widespread in automobile usage today. ...Such systems automatically apply braking in hazardous situations, and the relevant data recorded in the ECU are promising in the field of accident reconstruction. This study involved physical tests in the form of simulated rear-end collisions and the collection of recorded PCS data at the post-test stage.
Technical Paper

Mechatronics Based Accident Alarming System with Automatic Roadblock Prevention System

In any unlikely event of accidents or vehicle breakdown, there is accumulation of traffic which results in road-blockage and causes in convenience to other vehicles. ...If this happens in remote areas, the accidents victims are left unattended and there is delay in providing emergency services. In case of traffic, it obstructs the entry of ambulance and rescue team which results in death of passengers. ...To prevent this mishap, a mechatronics based road block avoidance and accident alarming system is designed which is automated by the use of sensors. The road-block is detected with the help sensors located at regular intervals on road.
Journal Article

Validating Speed Data from Cummins Engine Sudden Deceleration Data Reports

Under certain conditions, many can also record parameters that are useful in accident reconstruction. Cummins engines are commonly found on highway tractors on the road today. ...Since this data reports second-by-second speed information, it can be very useful in the analysis of an accident. Establishing the reliability of this information is important, if it is to be used by an accident investigator. ...Establishing the reliability of this information is important, if it is to be used by an accident investigator. This paper explores the data recorded on a Cummins engine ECM created during a series of acceleration, cruising, and braking tests.
Journal Article

Comparison of Heavy Truck Engine Control Unit Hard Stop Data with Higher-Resolution On-Vehicle Data

These data provide useful information to accident reconstruction personnel. In past studies, these data have been analyzed and compared to higher-resolution on-vehicle data for several heavy trucks and several makes of passenger cars. ...The goal of this study was to help accident reconstruction professionals better understand engine ECU “hard stop” data currently available on most commercial vehicles.

Early Acquisition and Preservation of Information in a Motor Vehicle Crash

It is intended that these guidelines improve the effectiveness of data collection, which will assist subsequent analysis and reconstruction of a particular crash. This document is intended to guide early data collectors whose objectives include documenting information related to the crash.
Technical Paper

Using Marine Engine Control Units in the Investigation of Watercraft Collision Incidents - Mercury Verado Outboard Engine

In more recent publications, it has been recognized that Event Data Recorder (EDR) technology incorporated into various Electronic Control Units (ECUs) used in automotive applications can be beneficial to collision investigation and reconstruction. These devices record data surrounding diagnostic occurrences, airbag deployments, and, with respect to some heavy vehicles, “last stop” and/or “sudden deceleration” events. ...The results of this research suggest that marine ECUs can be beneficial to accident investigation by recording specific engine parameters and operator inputs immediately prior to a collision incident.

Data Acquisition from Light-Duty Vehicles Using OBD and CAN

This in-vehicle network provides a data opportunity for improved maintenance, fleet management, warranty and legal issues, reliability, and accident reconstruction. Data Acquisition from Light-Duty Vehicles Using OBD and CAN is a guide for the reader on how to acquire and correctly interpret data from the in-vehicle network of light-duty (LD) vehicles.

Integrated Automotive Safety Handbook

New technologies in sensors and electronic control units, and the growing knowledge of car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure technologies have led to a fusion of the previously separated areas of accident avoidance (popularly known as active safety) and mitigation of injuries (popularly known as passive safety) into the newer concept of integrated vehicle safety. ...This new approach represents a further step toward lowering accident rates. This book, written by two of the foremost automotive engineering safety experts, takes a unique and comprehensive approach to describing all areas of vehicle safety: accident avoidance, pre-crash, mitigation of injuries, and post-crash technologies, providing a solutions-based perspective of integrated vehicle safety. ...This book, written by two of the foremost automotive engineering safety experts, takes a unique and comprehensive approach to describing all areas of vehicle safety: accident avoidance, pre-crash, mitigation of injuries, and post-crash technologies, providing a solutions-based perspective of integrated vehicle safety.
Technical Paper

Research on Severity Class Evaluation Based on Various Crash Situations Involved with Motorcycles for ISO 26262

A method of classifying injury severity according to vehicle speed was developed on the basis of accident data. In addition, a severity table for motorcycles was created using accident data in representative collision configurations involved with motorcycles in Japan. ...However, because the existing data pertain only to the accidents that involve injuries or fatalities, we could not perform estimation for the non-injury class (S0). ...In this study, in order to improve usability of the severity table created in our previous study, we applied a wider variety of collision configurations, and considered an estimation method for S0 from data other than the existing accident data.
Technical Paper

Development of a Scan Laser Radar

This scan laser radar can measure the lateral position of objects with high accuracy and good reconstruction level.
Technical Paper

Radar Based Adaptive Cruise Control for Truck Applications

A short description of these systems is presented with actual driver performance data and accident reduction data as experienced by various U.S. national fleets using these systems. The next application of radar sensors is for Intelligent Cruise Control (ICC) or also known as Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC).
Technical Paper

The Application of Compressed Sensing in Automotive Radar Signal Processing for the Target Location

This paper presents the linear frequency modulated continuous wave (LFMCW) model and simulates the sampling and reconstruction of the radar’s IF signal via CS technique by using MATLAB. Taking into account the IF signal is compressible in the frequency domain, CS technique can reconstruct the IF signal from the sub-Nyquist sampled data that can reduce the sampling rate.
Technical Paper

Engine and Load Torque Estimation with Application to Electronic Throttle Control

The first method is based on the reconstruction of the in-cylinder pressure based on the measured engine block vibration. The second one exploits a nonlinear estimation technique, in which the difference between the instantaneous measurement of crankshaft angular velocity and an estimate of the same velocity, based on a model of the engine, forms the input to a sliding-mode observer.
Technical Paper


“SAFE CRUISING SYSTEM” is an intelligent and adaptive cruise control gadget based on a technology, which has been devised to reduce the number of road accidents, by manifold. This system ensures automatic, intelligent adaptive control of the vehicle by automatic control of brakes and throttle. ...This system deals with automatically controlling all systems, thereby leaving the driver with the job of steering the vehicle, ensuring that he cannot have an accident under any circumstances.
Technical Paper

Braking Requirements for Optimizing Autonomous Emergency Braking Performance

A more advanced generation of active systems includes sensorial units that monitor vehicle’s surrounding and detect potential hazards, such as an imminent collision, and performs an automatically and commanded emergency braking to lessen or mitigate the consequences of the impending accident. For this latest system, the so-called autonomous emergency braking (AEB), various consumer testing protocols, such as Euro NCAP protocols [1], propose and periodically update test catalogues in order to evaluate the performance of such systems and later to inform potential consumers.