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Technical Paper

Utilizing Electronic Control Module Data in Accident Reconstruction

2000-03-06
2000-01-0466
This paper will briefly discuss the development of the diesel engine ECM from the late 1980's to the present with emphasis on the data recording capabilities related to vehicle accident reconstruction. In particular, vehicle diagnostic sensors which continuously monitor engine speed, vehicle speed, brake switch condition (on/off), clutch position (on/off), cruise switch condition (on/off), etc. will be discussed, as well as software capabilities which track rapid deceleration events (“quick stop occurrences”) and provide a “snapshot” of the vehicle's properties during the moments just prior to and after a collision. ...A heavy truck manufactured in the late 1990's is likely to be equipped with an electronic control module (ECM) which has the capability of being the truck's “flight recorder” in a serious accident. Extracting data from the ECM often answers critical questions regarding vehicle speed and the driver's actions leading up to, during and after a vehicle accident. ...Extracting data from the ECM often answers critical questions regarding vehicle speed and the driver's actions leading up to, during and after a vehicle accident. This paper will briefly discuss the development of the diesel engine ECM from the late 1980's to the present with emphasis on the data recording capabilities related to vehicle accident reconstruction.
Technical Paper

Accident Reconstruction with Data Recorded by Electronic Control Units in Vehicles with a Pre-crash Safety System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1440
Data recorded by vehicle-mounted electronic control units (ECUs) are highly useful in traffic accident reconstruction. In this context, event data recorders (EDRs) are airbag ECU components used to log information from crash events, typically providing data on speed, accelerator operation, RPMs and brake lamp activation for a period of around 5 s before a collision. ...Thus, it is important to check the accuracy of EDR speed data in accident reconstruction. Meanwhile, pre-crash safety systems (PCSs) are also becoming more widespread in automobile usage today. ...Such systems automatically apply braking in hazardous situations, and the relevant data recorded in the ECU are promising in the field of accident reconstruction. This study involved physical tests in the form of simulated rear-end collisions and the collection of recorded PCS data at the post-test stage.
Technical Paper

Mechatronics Based Accident Alarming System with Automatic Roadblock Prevention System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1728
In any unlikely event of accidents or vehicle breakdown, there is accumulation of traffic which results in road-blockage and causes in convenience to other vehicles. ...If this happens in remote areas, the accidents victims are left unattended and there is delay in providing emergency services. In case of traffic, it obstructs the entry of ambulance and rescue team which results in death of passengers. ...To prevent this mishap, a mechatronics based road block avoidance and accident alarming system is designed which is automated by the use of sensors. The road-block is detected with the help sensors located at regular intervals on road.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of In-Cylinder Pressure in a Diesel Engine from Vibration Signal Using a RBF Neural Network Model

2011-09-11
2011-24-0161
This study aims at building an efficient and robust radial basis function (RBF) artificial neural network (ANN), to reconstruct the in-cylinder pressure of a diesel engine starting from the signal of a low-cost accelerometer placed on the engine block. The accelerometer is a perfect non-intrusive replacement for expensive probes and is prospectively suitable for production vehicles. The RBF network is trained using measurements from different engine operating conditions. Training data are composed of time series from the accelerometer and corresponding measured in-cylinder pressure signals. The RBF network is then validated using data not included in training and the results show good correspondence between measured and reconstructed pressure signal. Various network parameters are used to optimize the network quality.
Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion and Transient Emissions Optimization Using Taguchi Methods

1993-03-01
930600
The optimization of diesel engine design parameters for low emissions using Taguchi Methods is described in this paper. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to predict production emissions distributions. A multi-cylinder development engine equipped with hydraulically-actuated electronically-controlled unit injector (HEUI) fuel system was used for the EPA HD transient cycle tests. ...Taguchi methods were found to be effective in simultaneously optimizing multiple combustion parameters and identifying the effect of each parameter on transient cycle emissions. Monte Carlo simulation proved to be a useful statistical tool for predicting production emissions variability.
Technical Paper

Limitations of Real-Time Engine-Out NOx Estimation in Diesel Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0963
In our paper we analyze the effect of input uncertainty on the accuracy of engine-out NOx estimates via a numerical Monte Carlo simulation and show that this effect can be significant. Even though our model is based on an in-cylinder pressure sensor, this sensor is limited in its capability to reduce the effect of other measured inputs on the model.
Technical Paper

Intake System Diagnosis for Diesel Engine with Dual-Loop EGR

2012-04-16
2012-01-0904
The proposed algorithms is implemented online using an approximation of the diagnosis threshold computed with Monte Carlo simulations. The paper ends with results carried out from experimental and simulated data of European drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Phenomenological Modelling of IDI Diesel Engines

1997-05-01
971592
The interaction between turbulent mixing and chemical reaction, which primarily controls combustion, is described as a stochastic process by means of a Monte Carlo collision-dispersion model. The major contribution of the present work lies in combining such an approach with improved models of fuel evaporation in supercritical conditions, burning rate, radiative heat transfer and flow coefficient of the passageway, besides properly accounting for the real gas effects.
Book

An Engineer in the Courtroom

1995-07-01
Avoiding Litigation The Litigation Process Engineers and Engineering Information How the Engineer Can Help the Attorney The Discovery Process The Deposition The Trial Questions Accident Reconstruction Definitions and Techniques Employed by Attorneys War Stories Tips for the Engineer Involved in Litigation An interesting, informative, "must-read" book for engineers involved in product design, consulting, or accident investigation, and an ideal reference for lawyers to have on hand to give to engineers serving as expert witnesses. ...Some common examples include product liability and accident investigation cases. The information and suggestions included in An Engineer in the Courtroom will enable engineers to do a proper and professional job when dealing with matters of litigation, in and out of the courtroom. ...Chapters Cover: Introduction The Nature of Accidents Why Go to Court? Avoiding Litigation The Litigation Process Engineers and Engineering Information How the Engineer Can Help the Attorney The Discovery Process The Deposition The Trial Questions Accident Reconstruction Definitions and Techniques Employed by Attorneys War Stories Tips for the Engineer Involved in Litigation An interesting, informative, "must-read" book for engineers involved in product design, consulting, or accident investigation, and an ideal reference for lawyers to have on hand to give to engineers serving as expert witnesses.
Journal Article

Validating Speed Data from Cummins Engine Sudden Deceleration Data Reports

2009-04-20
2009-01-0876
Under certain conditions, many can also record parameters that are useful in accident reconstruction. Cummins engines are commonly found on highway tractors on the road today. ...Since this data reports second-by-second speed information, it can be very useful in the analysis of an accident. Establishing the reliability of this information is important, if it is to be used by an accident investigator. ...Establishing the reliability of this information is important, if it is to be used by an accident investigator. This paper explores the data recorded on a Cummins engine ECM created during a series of acceleration, cruising, and braking tests.
Journal Article

Comparison of Heavy Truck Engine Control Unit Hard Stop Data with Higher-Resolution On-Vehicle Data

2009-04-20
2009-01-0879
These data provide useful information to accident reconstruction personnel. In past studies, these data have been analyzed and compared to higher-resolution on-vehicle data for several heavy trucks and several makes of passenger cars. ...The goal of this study was to help accident reconstruction professionals better understand engine ECU “hard stop” data currently available on most commercial vehicles.
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