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Technical Paper

Evaluating the Uncertainty in Various Measurement Tasks Common to Accident Reconstruction

2002-03-04
2002-01-0546
This paper presents the results of recent tests conducted to obtain sample distributions of some common parameters, including measurements made with tapes, measurements made with roller-wheels, skidmark measurements, yawmark measurements, estimation of crush damage from photographs, and drag factors, that can be used to evaluate the uncertainty in an accident reconstruction analysis. The paper also reviews the distributions of some pertinent data reported by other researchers. ...When performing calculations pertaining to the analysis of motor vehicle accidents, investigators must often select appropriate values for a number of parameters. The uncertainty of the final answers is a function of the uncertainty of each parameter involved in the calculation.
Standard

J1349 Certified Power Engine Data for GM LZG as used in 2008 Chevrolet Impala / Monte Carlo

2007-02-06
CURRENT
CPGM2_08LZGIMPA
This product includes information on the manufacturer, engine, applications, testing location, certified maximum horsepower, certified maximum torque along with the certified curves of horsepower and torque over a wide range of engine RPM speeds. In addition, this product contains complete engine information such as displacement, cylinder configuration, valve train, combustion cycle, pressure charging, charge air cooling, bore, stroke, cylinder numbering convention, firing order, compression ratio, fuel system, fuel system pressure, ignition system, knock control, intake manifold, exhaust manifold, cooling system, coolant liquid, thermostat, cooling fan, lubricating oil, fuel, fuel shut off speed, etc. Also included are all measured test parameters outlined in J2723.
Standard

J1349 Certifed Power Engine Data for GM LZ4 as used in 2006 Chevrolet Impala and 2006 Chevrolet Monte Carlo

2006-02-14
CURRENT
CPGM2_LZ4
This product includes information on the manufacturer, engine, applications, testing location, certified maximum horsepower, certified maximum torque along with the certified curves of horsepower and torque over a wide range of engine RPM speeds. In addition, this product contains complete engine information such as displacement, cylinder configuration, valve train, combustion cycle, pressure charging, charge air cooling, bore, stroke, cylinder numbering convention, firing order, compression ratio, fuel system, fuel system pressure, ignition system, knock control, intake manifold, exhaust manifold, cooling system, coolant liquid, thermostat, cooling fan, lubrication oil, fuel fuel shut off speed, etc. Also included are all measured test parameters outlined in J2723.
Technical Paper

Predicting Weight Distribution from Occupant Load Using a Monte Carlo Method

2012-09-24
2012-01-1925
Actual occupant weight distributions versus certified weight per occupant seat causes a potential conflict between a vehicle's in-use weight versus its certified GVWR. A Monte Carlo method using a midsized bus example was conducted to determine the statistical probability that adult passengers and rated cargo would result in weight distributions that exceeded tire load capability, Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR), or GVWR.
Standard

J1349 Certified Power Engine Data for GM LS4 as used in 2008 Chevrolet Impala / Chevrolet Monte Carlo / Pontiac Grand Prix

2008-04-04
CURRENT
CPGM2_08LS4IMGP
This product includes information on the manufacturer, engine, applications, testing location, certified maximum horsepower, certified maximum torque along with the certified curves of horsepower and torque over a wide range of engine RPM speeds. In addition, this product contains complete engine information such as displacement, cylinder configuration, valve train, combustion cycle, pressure charging, charge air cooling, bore, stroke, cylinder numbering convention, firing order, compression ratio, fuel system, fuel system pressure, ignition system, knock control, intake manifold, exhaust manifold, cooling system, coolant liquid, thermostat, cooling fan, lubricating oil, fuel, fuel shut off speed, etc. Also included are all measured test parameters outlined in J2723.
Technical Paper

Friction Applications in Accident Reconstruction

1983-02-01
830612
The determination of appropriate friction coefficient values is an important aspect of accident reconstruction. Tire-roadway friction values are highly dependent on a variety of physical factors. ...This paper presents a technical review of basic concepts and principles of friction as they apply to accident reconstruction and automobile safety. A brief review of test measurement methods is also presented, together with simple methods of friction measurement to obtain more precise values in many situations. ...Factors such as tire design, side force limitations, road surface wetness, vehicle speed, and load shifting require understanding if useful reconstruction calculations are to be made. Tabulated experimental friction coefficient data are available, and may be improved upon in many situations by simple testing procedures.
Technical Paper

The “IMPAC” Computer Program for Accident Reconstruction

1985-02-25
850254
The computer program “IMPAC” (impact Momentum of a Planar Angled Collision) was developed for use in accident reconstruction to study the impact phase of a collision. It may be used for vehicle to vehicle or vehicle to fixed object impacts.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of Accident Severity in a Multiple Vehicle Collision

2001-03-05
2001-01-1283
This paper presents various reconstruction methods for a multiple-car-collision, resulting from one vehicle approaching a line of stationary, undamaged vehicles that consequently pushes the stationary vehicles into one another. ...However, seldom are all vehicles available for damage inspection, or are the skid/gouge-marks or friction-coefficients adequately known. The accident severity of the collision pair of interest would be reconstructed more efficiently if the damage energy method were applied to only this collision pair. ...The method is applicable for most real-world accidents, unless one or more of the vehicles is significantly heavier and/or stiffer than the vehicles of interest.
Technical Paper

Crash Testing with a Massive Moving Barrier as an Accident Reconstruction Tool

2000-03-06
2000-01-0604
Damage analysis methods in accident reconstruction use an estimate of vehicle stiffness together with measured crush to calculate crush energy, closing speed, and vehicle delta-V. ...Massive moving barrier (MMB) testing is introduced as a tool to obtain additional and accident specific stiffness coefficients applicable for reconstruction. The MMB impacts a stationary vehicle of similar structure as the accident vehicle under accident-specific conditions like impact location, angle, over-ride / under-ride, offset and damage energy. ...Stiffness is generally derived from barrier crash test data. The accident being reconstructed often involves one or more conditions for which vehicle stiffness is not well defined by existing crash tests.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Tire Friction Test Methodologies Used in Accident Reconstruction

1998-02-23
980367
Many accident reconstructions rely on the use of friction factors for the analysis of vehicle speeds. ...Measurement of the friction factor, or coefficient of friction, at the accident site is usually an important step in achieving a more accurate estimate of the friction factor at the time of the accident. Over the years several on site test methodologies have emerged within the accident reconstruction community. ...Measurement of the friction factor, or coefficient of friction, at the accident site is usually an important step in achieving a more accurate estimate of the friction factor at the time of the accident.
Technical Paper

Daily Vehicle Inspection and Vehicle Maintenance Issues in Accident Reconstruction

2007-04-16
2007-01-0722
Problems with commercial motor vehicle components such as service brakes, steering controls, lighting devices, reflectors, tires, coupling devices, and other equipment can lead to accidents. Following a collision, accident reconstructionists may be called upon to determine whether these conditions were present before the crash and whether they were a causative factor. ...A discussion is included as to how such findings may be integrated into a reconstruction and cause analysis. Suggestions are offered to promote safer motor carrier practices relevant to vehicle inspections and maintenance issues.
Standard

J1349 Certified Power Engine Data for GM LZ8 as used in 2007 Impala/Monte Carlo Level 2

2006-08-01
CURRENT
CPGM2_07LZ8IMPA
This product includes information on the manufacturer, engine, applications, testing location, certified maximum horsepower, certified maximum torque along with the certified curves of horsepower and torque over a wide range of engine RPM speeds. In addition, this product contains complete engine information such as displacement, cylinder configuration, valve train, combustion cycle, pressure charging, charge air cooling, bore, stroke, cylinder numbering convention, firing order, compression ratio, fuel system, fuel system pressure, ignition system, knock control, intake manifold, exhaust manifold, cooling system, coolant liquid, thermostat, cooling fan, lubricating oil, fuel, fuel shut off speed, etc. Also included are all measured test parameters outlined in J2723.
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