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Journal Article

A Bayesian Approach to Cross-Validation in Pedestrian Accident Reconstruction

2011-04-12
2011-01-0290
In statistical modeling, cross-validation refers to the practice of fitting a model with part of the available data, and then using predictions of the unused data to test and improve the fitted model. In accident reconstruction, cross-validation is possible when two different measurements can be used to estimate the same accident feature, such as when measured skidmark length and pedestrian throw distance each provide an estimate of impact speed. ...In accident reconstruction, cross-validation is possible when two different measurements can be used to estimate the same accident feature, such as when measured skidmark length and pedestrian throw distance each provide an estimate of impact speed. ...An actual measurement falling in an extreme tail of the predictive distribution suggests a weakness in the assumptions governing the reconstruction. This paper describes an implementation of these ideas using the Bayesian freeware WinBUGS.
Technical Paper

Data Retrieval by Accident Reconstruction for Safer Vehicle Design

1972-02-01
720284
The effectiveness of safety design must be justified in terms of real automobile accidents with human occupants. Since it is far too dangerous to use human subjects in full-scale collision experiments, substitutes are usually studied, that is, experiments performed with dummies and mathematical models. ...Full-scale collision experiments with human occupants could be performed by reconstructing real automobile accidents accurately. To retrieve the most needed data for further improvements in safety design and to translate actual accidents as controlled experiments, an engineered method was developed to reconstruct accidents. ...To retrieve the most needed data for further improvements in safety design and to translate actual accidents as controlled experiments, an engineered method was developed to reconstruct accidents.
Technical Paper

Computer Aids for Accident Investigation

1976-02-01
760776
Correlation of injury with the nature and severity of the acceleration exposure in actual highway accidents is complicated by problems with uniformity in the interpretation of accident evidence. ...Through the use of such aids in accident studies, it is possible to establish injury thresholds and mechanisms for living humans in relatively detailed exposures and under different conditions of restraint and protection.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of Actual Car-Pedestrian Collisions with Dummy and Cadavers

1983-02-01
830053
Preliminary tests were performed by research departments of automobile manufacturers to check the estimated conditions of these accidents before performing their reconstructions. A particular aim was to obtain insights into the mechanisms leading to injuries in pedestrian accidents; more generally reconstructing actual accidents is a privilegied approach to determine human tolerance limits and the corresponding protection criteria on dummies; the injuries resulting from the actual accidents are consequently compared with the data measured on dummies and cadavers in the reconstruction experiments. ...A particular aim was to obtain insights into the mechanisms leading to injuries in pedestrian accidents; more generally reconstructing actual accidents is a privilegied approach to determine human tolerance limits and the corresponding protection criteria on dummies; the injuries resulting from the actual accidents are consequently compared with the data measured on dummies and cadavers in the reconstruction experiments. ...Car-pedestrian accidents were selected with reference to criteria like relevance in terms of injury severities representativity and reproducibility aiming to as accurate as possible reconstructions by dummy and cadaver tests.
Technical Paper

Experimental Reconstruction and Mathematical Modelling of Real World Pedestrian Accidents

1983-02-01
830189
Several similar real world pedestrian accidents are described and a number of different methods of reconstructing these accidents are reported. ...The results of full scale experimental reconstructions of two of the accidents using both dummies and cadavers as the pedestrian surrogate are presented. ...The relative merits of different methods of reproducing accidents are considered and a methodology for the reproduction of real world accidents outlined.
Technical Paper

A Demographic Analysis and Reconstruction of Selected Cases from the Pedestrian Crash Data Study

2002-03-04
2002-01-0560
The first is the finalization of the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) in order to provide detailed information regarding the vehicle/pedestrian accident environment and how it has changed from the interim PCDS information. The pedestrian kinematics, injury contact sources, and injuries were analyzed relative to vehicle geometry. ...The second area presented is full-scale attempts at reconstruction of two selected PCDS cases using the Polar II pedestrian dummy to determine if the pre-crash motion of the pedestrian and vehicle could somehow be linked to the injuries and vehicle damage documented in the case.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction Tests Design to Support the Correlation of Real Injuries with Dummy Readings

2012-10-02
2012-36-0456
From the many sub-tasks of the four study areas of the EC CASPER project, this paper presents the following point: • Child protection improvements as a result of accident reconstructions and development of injury risk curves. The first step in achieving this aim was to collect real world in-depth road accident data involving restrained children, with injuries systematically coded using the AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale, AAAM 1998). ...In order to select accident cases that would provide valuable information for the injury risk curves - a good spread across the whole spectrum of the AIS injury assessment (AIS1 - AIS6) - a case selection criteria was used that favoured more severe accidents in terms of injury severity or low injury severity accidents with high crash severities. ...The first step in achieving this aim was to collect real world in-depth road accident data involving restrained children, with injuries systematically coded using the AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale, AAAM 1998).
Technical Paper

Experiment and Accident: Comparison of Dummy Test Results and Real Pedestrian Accidents

1974-02-01
741177
To clarify to what extent the results gained from known automobile-pedestrian impact experiments may be applied to actual accidents, comparisons with the analysis of actual accidents and comparable experiments were made with particular attention to the pattern of damage and the throw distances of the pedestrians. ...The injury patterns sustained by pedestrians involved in traffic accidents were related to vehicle damage and classified with respect to impact geometry. From the conclusions drawn from the pedestrians' motions, impact stress, and tolerance, experimental results may well be applied to the reconstruction of actual automobile-pedestrian collisions. ...From the conclusions drawn from the pedestrians' motions, impact stress, and tolerance, experimental results may well be applied to the reconstruction of actual automobile-pedestrian collisions. However, this is true only within distinct classes of impact geometry, characterized by automobile front-end design, pedestrian size, and impact position.
Technical Paper

Abdominal Twin Pressure Sensors for the Assessment of Abdominal Injuries in Q Dummies: In-Dummy Evaluation and Performance in Accident Reconstructions

2012-10-29
2012-22-0010
The APTS ability to detect abdominal loading in sled tests was also confirmed, with peak pressures typically below 1 bar when the belt loaded only the pelvis and the thorax (appropriate restraint) and values above that level when the abdomen was loaded directly (inappropriate restraint). Then, accident reconstructions performed as part of CASPER and previous EC funded projects were reanalyzed.
Technical Paper

CHILD INJURY TOLERANCE THROUGH CASE RECONSTRUCTION

2001-06-04
2001-06-0026
This study presents the preliminary results of an ongoing effort to verify the ICPLs through reconstructions of real world incidents which have resulted in child injuries. Incident cases which have the potential for reconstruction were identified utilizing various sources. ...Incident cases which have the potential for reconstruction were identified utilizing various sources. Tests were then conducted utilizing available case information in order to best approximate the pre-injury positioning of the injured child.
Technical Paper

Crashworthiness Rating System and Accident Data: Convergences and Divergences

1984-02-01
840200
The goal of this paper is to examine the validity of the Crashworthiness Rating Method (part of the New Car Assessment Program -NCAP - created by NHTSA) with reference to real-life accident data. A program was set up to verify the quality of predictive characteristics of vehicle models' real passive safety protection based on 35 mph crash tests against a 0° barrier. ...The Crashworthiness Rating Method was applied in the French context because seat belt use has been mandatory in France for over 10 years, and we have access to real-life accident files whose size and categories (type of vehicle model, crushed area, obstacle struck, seat occupied, age, and use of seat belt) allowed us to select cases appropriately and thoroughly. ...The results of crashworthiness rating tests expressed by criteria obtained on dummies and also by the OPSEM or the GILLIS index, were compared with accident statistics results expressed in the form of the fatality rate and the social cost index.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian Vehicle Accident Simulation Through Dummy Tests

1975-02-01
751165
This demands a better knowledge about the performance of pedestrian accidents. Tests using dummies to simulate real world accidents are very important to study the mechanism of impacts. ...Pedestrian-vehicle accidents have become a peculiar urban problem that has to be solved in the future. This demands a better knowledge about the performance of pedestrian accidents.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Movement and Load Simulation for Persons Involved in an Automobile Accident

1987-05-01
871109
This report deals with the development and use of the Daimler-Benz Isohuman Simulation Model for the mathematical simulation of dummy behaviour in an impact environment. Designated ISM, this computer program package is capable of handling both automobile occupant and pedestrian kinematics. Daimler-Benz safety engineers use the ISM to evaluate new safety designs before performing actual laboratory tests. The ISM code uses the theoretical algorithm of Prof. Wittenburg. The dummy is represented by 11 rigid body elements. Realistic and accurate simulations are assured by the fact that a considerable number of functional and sophisticated algorithms were developed to involve the different interactions of dummy-to-belt or dummy-to-vehicle. In particular, considerable work is being done to introduce a more precise and realistic dummy and vehicle geometry.
Technical Paper

An Application of Car Crash Test Technology to a Causal Investigation of a Revolving Door Accident

2006-04-03
2006-01-0717
On March 26, 2004, a fatal accident occurred when the head of a 6-year-old child was trapped in a large revolving door in a high-rise building in Tokyo. ...To investigate the cause of the accident, Prof. Yotaro Hatamura, representing Hatamura Institute for the Advancement of Technology, gathered experts in various fields including architecture and door manufacture, and initiated the “Door Project,” with the cooperation of the building company. ...Applying car crash test technology, including production of special door test dummies and high-speed photography, it was possible to simulate the accident while taking human movement into account. As a result, we obtained important data for accident cause investigation.
Technical Paper

In-Vehicle Driving Posture Reconstruction from 3D Scanning Data Using a 3D Digital Human Modeling Tool

2016-04-05
2016-01-1357
Driving posture study is essential for the evaluation of the occupant packaging. This paper presents a method of reconstructing driver’s postures in a real vehicle using a 3D laser scanner and Human Builder (HB), the digital human modeling tool under CATIA. The scanning data was at first converted into the format readable by CATIA, and then a personalized HB manikin was generated mainly using stature, sitting height and weight. Its pelvis position and joint angles were manually adjusted so as to match the manikin with the scan envelop. If needed, a fine adjustment of some anthropometric dimensions was also preceded. Finally the personalized manikin was put in the vehicle coordinate system, and joint angels and joint positions were extracted for further analysis.
Technical Paper

Prospects for Improving Side Impact Protection Based on Canadian Field Accident Data and Crash Testing

1991-02-01
910321
A total of 22 side impact tests of production vehicles have been completed to date to assess the appropriateness of the test procedures developed in the U.S. and Europe in the context of the Canadian vehicle mix and associated side impact accident problem. Vehicle performance rankings provided by the two test procedures were found to vary greatly. ...Examination of Canadian field accident data indicates that both barrier designs create loading environments which, in terms of maximum crush to the impacted vehicle, have a high likelihood of producing serious or fatal injury to a driver.
Technical Paper

Comparison Between In-The-Field Accidents and Reconstructed Accidents with Dummies and with Cadavers

1975-02-01
751147
By accurately reconstituting accidents whose parameters are well known from multidisciplinary accident investigation, it is possible to associate forces and accelerations values with injuries sustained by occupants involved in in-the-field accidents. In this study, two in-the-field accidents, their reconstruction conducted by using dummies as occupants, and their reconstruction then with human cadavers are analysed. ...In this study, two in-the-field accidents, their reconstruction conducted by using dummies as occupants, and their reconstruction then with human cadavers are analysed. These accidents reconstructions allow to associate and compare accident occupants injuries with acceleration forces, injuries criteria values measured on dummies, and, on the other hand, accelerations, injuries criteria values, injuries sustained by cadavers during the second accident reconstruction. ...By accurately reconstituting accidents whose parameters are well known from multidisciplinary accident investigation, it is possible to associate forces and accelerations values with injuries sustained by occupants involved in in-the-field accidents.
Technical Paper

Injury Mechanism and Crash Kinematic of Cyclists in Accidents - An Analysis of Real Accidents

1989-10-01
892425
For this study 614 accidents of two-wheel users were investigated by a scientific research team within the framework of local accident documentations. The accident and injury situations are described, and cognitions from accident simulation tests are additionally evaluated with dummies. ...For this study 614 accidents of two-wheel users were investigated by a scientific research team within the framework of local accident documentations. ...The accident and injury situations are described, and cognitions from accident simulation tests are additionally evaluated with dummies. Throwing distances of two-wheelers and riders reveal the characteristics of the movement kinematic, in relation to impact speeds.
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