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Journal Article

Occupant Trajectory Model using Case-Specific Accident Reconstruction Data for Vehicle Position, Roll, and Yaw

2008-04-14
2008-01-0517
In the fields of accident reconstruction and injury biomechanics, it is often of interest to know details of an occupant's ejection from a vehicle during a rollover. ...In particular, we model the vehicle's longitude, latitude, roll, yaw, and time derivatives thereof, based on data extracted from a particular accident reconstruction. We model the occupant moving in the vehicle and possibly ejected at any time during the rollover. ...Finally, the new model is tailored to the underlying accident reconstruction data, producing a simulation that is based on the uniqueness of a particular rollover event.
Technical Paper

On the Development of a Comprehensive Hazard Modeling Tool through Distributed Simulation: Learning from the Columbia Space Shuttle Accident

2005-10-03
2005-01-3368
Although there was no human casualty reported, the outcome of this accident could have been much different. In this paper, we investigate the use of distributed simulation and information fusion to better predict the effects, in terms of expectations of casualties (EC), of the different hazards produced by an accidental or instructed loss of such a vehicle.
Technical Paper

Accident Investigations - A Case for New Perceptions and Methodologies

1980-02-01
800387
At least 5 different perceptions of the accident phenomenon, 44 different reasons for investigating accidents, 7 investigative processes, 6 general methodologies, and 3 differing types of output requirements affect accident investigations. ...These differences reflect the lack of a unifying conceptual framework for accident investigation and safety; corrupt data search, selection, organization and reporting decisions during investigations; and result in spurious accident data. A tentative unifying perception of accident phenomena, with supporting assumptions, principles and rules of procedure for their investigation was synthesized from the findings. ...At least 5 different perceptions of the accident phenomenon, 44 different reasons for investigating accidents, 7 investigative processes, 6 general methodologies, and 3 differing types of output requirements affect accident investigations. These differences reflect the lack of a unifying conceptual framework for accident investigation and safety; corrupt data search, selection, organization and reporting decisions during investigations; and result in spurious accident data.
Technical Paper

Motorist Head and Body Impact Analysis, Methodologies and Reconstruction

1985-02-25
850097
Motorist impact marks and embossments provide valuable data relating to evaluation of injury, crash energy management, occupant positioning and collision severity. Research techniques presented enable analysis of these impacts. Biomechanical techniques for motorist head impact analysis are presented along with static crush calibration and dynamic impact replication of passenger compartment head dents. Evaluation and identification of occupant induced marks on restraint systems are discussed as well as determination of who was driving. Ejection findings of the fifties and sixties are clarified by case studies that show how vehicle design changes may switch the portal of ejection from doors to windows.
Technical Paper

Crashes Accompanied by Fire: What Do the Accident Data Tell Us?

2006-04-03
2006-01-0790
Additionally, an examination of multiple data sources revealed that statistically significant conclusions regarding collisions accompanied by fire are not always possible because of the rarity of the event and the nature of the accident data coding, which often lacks detailed information.
Technical Paper

Accident Prevention

1964-01-01
640512
Accident prevention is one of the FAA's prime statutory responsibilities. Some of the efforts in carrying out these responsibilities are described in this paper, and the following FAA programs are briefly explained: (1) an air carrier maintenance system of establishing airworthiness alert values so that timely maintenance can be performed, (2) outline of a concentrated program to prevent false fire warnings, (3) development and expansion of positive control in Air Traffic Service, (4) flight checking of airline captains by special trained inspectors, (5) participating in CAB-FAA schooling on accident investigation, and (6) dissemination of safety literature in the general aviation field. ...Some of the efforts in carrying out these responsibilities are described in this paper, and the following FAA programs are briefly explained: (1) an air carrier maintenance system of establishing airworthiness alert values so that timely maintenance can be performed, (2) outline of a concentrated program to prevent false fire warnings, (3) development and expansion of positive control in Air Traffic Service, (4) flight checking of airline captains by special trained inspectors, (5) participating in CAB-FAA schooling on accident investigation, and (6) dissemination of safety literature in the general aviation field.
Technical Paper

Severe Coach Accident Survey

1985-01-01
856103
Data about severe coach accidents are still limited. More knowledge in this field is required to define safety priorities that designers and manufactures need to consider in future vehicles. ...Despite the good safety level of coaches, some spectacular accidents nevertheless occur causing serious injuries and death to the users, and these are often brought to the public's attention by the media. ...This survey is based on all the fatal coach accidents that occurred in France between 1978 and 1984. The paper describes the causes and accident configurations and analyzes the injury mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Failure Analysis in Support of Aircraft Accident Investigations

2000-04-11
2000-01-2102
Subsequent to determination of component failure cause, corrective actions and development of field inspection methods are often imperative to preventing accident recurrence. Examples from several analyses of both military and commercial accident hardware are presented. ...High-speed ground impact, fire, secondary damage and the loss of components during an accident greatly hinder component failure analysis efforts and root cause determination. Careful evaluation of unfailed components can often give accident investigators the information needed to fill in gaps and determine the mishap sequence or cause. ...Careful evaluation of unfailed components can often give accident investigators the information needed to fill in gaps and determine the mishap sequence or cause.
Technical Paper

Discerning the State of Crashworthiness in the Accident Experience

1985-01-01
856069
This paper addresses the risks of occupant casualties in highway accidents. Such risks are determined from U.S. accident experience in the past 10 years. Risks are analyzed as a function of vehicle type, car market class, make, nameplate, and model year for crashes of various impact types and various severities.
Technical Paper

Field Accident Evaluations and Experimental Study of Seat Back Performance Relative to Rear-Impact Occupant Protection

1993-03-01
930346
This study examines in some detail 23 actual rear-impact cases dealing with front seat collapse and compares the findings with similar results from 23 Canadian cases. In addition, seat tests and car-to-car crash tests are utilized to examine the potential hazards and/or benefits of collapsing versus non-collapsing seat systems. Evaluation of the above 46 cases indicates that an extremely high rate of rearward ejection occurs to restrained front-seat occupants subjected to rear impact. The majority of those ejected experienced serious to fatal injuries, either from contact in the rear or outside of the vehicle, when seated in collapsing seats. These results are contrary to some earlier published data and, as such, recommendations are made which could help improve data collection methods so as to better evaluate the issues associated with rear-impact seat strength.
Technical Paper

RadCAD: Validation of a New Thermal Radiation Analyzer

1997-07-01
972442
RadCAD™* is a thermal radiation tool used to calculate form factors, exchange factors, and absorbed fluxes via Monte Carlo technique. Panczak in reference 1 presented a complete overview of RadCAD including: motivation, approach and algorithms. ...From results presented here, RadCAD's form factor calculation provides results consistent with the assumptions that govern a Monte Carlo analysis. Results show that RadCAD converges to the exact solution in a manner consistent with Monte Carlo Techniques. ...Results show that RadCAD converges to the exact solution in a manner consistent with Monte Carlo Techniques.
Technical Paper

Thermal Radiation Analysis on Automotive Lamp Using CFD and Ray Tracing Method

2017-03-28
2017-01-1737
Then, the accuracy and computational cost of the method were compared with thermal results obtained by a thermal radiation model using Monte Carlo (MC) technique for calculating radiation effect coupled with CFD in heat transfer analysis. ...According to the study results, the Monte Carlo method can give a more accurate thermal analysis results for a license plate lamp, whereas the two-day faster ray tracing mapping analysis can also give a similar tendency of temperature distribution on the lamp as well.
Journal Article

Neutron Transport Models and Methods for HZETRN and Coupling to Low Energy Light Ion Transport

2008-06-29
2008-01-2162
Both models are compared to the Monte Carlo codes HETC-HEDS and FLUKA, and the DC model is shown to agree closely with the Monte Carlo results. ...Both models are compared to the Monte Carlo codes HETC-HEDS and FLUKA, and the DC model is shown to agree closely with the Monte Carlo results. Finally, it is found in the development of either model that the decoupling of low energy neutrons from the light ion (A≤4) transport procedure adversely affects low energy light ion fluence spectra and exposure quantities.
Journal Article

Radiation Shielding for Space Exploration: the MoMa - COUNT Programme

2008-06-29
2008-01-2161
In parallel, supporting dedicated ground experiments in accelerators, as well as Monte Carlo simulations, are performed. This paper aims at presenting the more recent activities and results in this field, on the background of the past flight and ground experiments already reported in [1].
Technical Paper

Integrated Thermal Analysis System (ITAS)

1996-07-01
961376
The code supports full Monte Carlo ray tracing and/or conventional algorithms for view factors, shadow factors, orbital incident/absorbed fluxes, radiation interchange factors, and steady-state and/or transient temperature computations for stationary or spinning spacecraft.
Technical Paper

Analytical Approach and Computer Model Development for Performance Investigations of Liquid Droplet Radiators

1984-07-01
840977
An analysis and computer model has been developed which realistically models the nature of the radiative exchange by determining volumetric interchange factors using ray tracing and a Monte Carlo technique. The computer analysis returns sheet temperature distribution and heat rejection information for a rectangular-shaped droplet sheet with specified optical depth and ejector and collector temperatures.
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