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Technical Paper

Crash Severity: A Comparison of Event Data Recorder Measurements with Accident Reconstruction Estimates

The Event Data Recorders (EDRs), now being installed as standard equipment by several automakers, have the potential to provide an independent measurement of crash severity which avoids many of the difficulties of accident reconstruction techniques. This paper evaluates the feasibility of replacing delta-V estimates from accident reconstruction with the delta-V recorded by EDRs. ...This paper evaluates the feasibility of replacing delta-V estimates from accident reconstruction with the delta-V recorded by EDRs. The analysis is based on over 500 NASS/CDS cases from 2000 - 2002 which have corresponding EDR datasets. ...The primary description of crash severity in most accident databases is vehicle delta-V. Delta-V has been traditionally estimated through accident reconstruction techniques using computer codes, e.g.
Technical Paper

Energy and Major Diversion in Accident Reconstruction

This paper first checks the validity of “observed” EDSMAC damage, prior to its use as a reference in accident reconstruction, by the reconstruction of speeds and times using elementary physics, for both normal and oblique deformation. ...Special methods of momentum-based accident reconstruction often are required when path diversions are major, that is, in excess of about 45°. ...Comparison of various approaches with the reference cases thus indicates that a fully developed, properly calibrated method of reconstruction can substantially match the reference method of simulation at its best, while sometimes in relevance and always in speed of solution it clearly outperforms the reference.
Technical Paper

Speedometers and Collision Reconstruction

As part of recent ITAI (Institute of Traffic Accident Investigators) crash test events in the UK, a number of instrument clusters were installed in vehicles to simulate both frontal and side impacts.
Technical Paper

Full-Scale Moving Motorcycle into Moving Car Crash Testing for Use in Safety Design and Accident Reconstruction

Similarly, the published data indicates that historic analyses of motorcycle accidents and the advancements in motorcycle safety designs have been based, in large part, on single-moving-vehicle crash tests. ...For two-moving-vehicle accidents, the rotation of the motorcycle front wheel and the resulting asymmetric compression and deformation of the front forks affects the post-impact motion of the motorcycle rider and the deformation of both the motorcycle and the other vehicle.
Technical Paper

Side Impacts to the Passenger Compartment — Clinical Studies from Field Accident Investigations

The side impact, recently and currently the subject to of much debate, controversy and proposed NHTSA rule making, is a difficult type of crash to significantly reduce serious injuries and fatalites. Results from real-world crash investigations presents a confusing picture for the near-side passenger compartment crash. A direct relationship between the amount of crush and injury severity levels (MAIS) is not apparent. Exemplar cases of tow-a-way/injury crashes are presented at all AIS injury level of drivers in crashes with direct driver door crush damage.
Technical Paper

Car-to-Car Side Impacts: Computerized Crash Reconstruction

This paper describes the injury relations which result when car-to-car crashes are analyzed using a computerized accident reconstruction procedure. The results of the study are presented in the form of graphical relations between injury severity and crash severity. ...THIS PAPER EXPLORES the use of a relatively new tool for accident reconstruction - Simulation Model of Automobile Collisions (SMAC). The capability of this program to simulate a wide variety of crashes is described in detail elsewhere (1,2,3)*. ...This study is limited to the reconstruction of side impact collisions in which two passenger vehicles are involved. The need for redesigning vehicles based on an understanding of this crash condition is amply demonstrated by the fact that 28 percent of passenger car occupant fatalities and 41 percent of passenger car occupant injuries are caused by side impacts (4).
Technical Paper

The CREST project accident data base

The method used in this project was to collect data from accident investigations and from reconstructed crashes in order to determine the physical parameters (measured on dummies) which correspond to various injury mechanisms, and is described in ESV 2001 - paper n°294. ...This paper presents the activity developed within Workpackage I of CREST, responsible for accident investigations. A presentation of the common methodology used is made. A general description of the database of 405 documented accident cases in which 628 restrained children are involved is given as well as specific features of the reality of the restraint of children in cars, for example: age and size, CRS type, place, and a discussion on misuse and inappropriate use. ...A general description of the database of 405 documented accident cases in which 628 restrained children are involved is given as well as specific features of the reality of the restraint of children in cars, for example: age and size, CRS type, place, and a discussion on misuse and inappropriate use.
Technical Paper

Crashes Accompanied by Fire: What Do the Accident Data Tell Us?

Additionally, an examination of multiple data sources revealed that statistically significant conclusions regarding collisions accompanied by fire are not always possible because of the rarity of the event and the nature of the accident data coding, which often lacks detailed information.
Journal Article

Application of Lateral Pole Impact Force-Displacement Data to the Reconstruction of Side Impacts with Narrow Objects

Reconstruction of passenger vehicle accidents involving side impacts with narrow objects has traditionally been approached using side stiffness coefficients derived from moveable deformable barrier tests or regression analysis using the maximum crush in available lateral pole impact testing while accounting for vehicle test weight. ...Accounting for structural restoration is important when assessing accident severity using this methodology. The nominal restoration of the vehicle structures was generally calculated to be in the 17 to 21% range.
Technical Paper

Soil Trip Rollover Simulation and Occupant Kinematics in Real World Accident

Soil trip-over simulation was carried out based on real world accidents. Based on rigid body dynamics, PC-Crash software was chosen to make an accident reconstruction analysis of some selected cases chosen from an accident database (NASS-CDS). ...With SUVs and minivans accounting for a larger share of the US market in the past decade, rollover accidents have drawn greater attention, leading to more active research from different perspectives. ...This ranges from investigations for elucidating the basic causes and mechanisms of rollover accidents to studies of more advanced occupant protection measures. As the phenomenon of a rollover accident is longer in duration than frontal, side or rear impacts, it is relatively difficult [1] to simulate such accidents for experimental verification and also for proper evaluation of occupant restraint system performance.
Technical Paper

IMPACT—Integrated Multiple Program for Accident Crash Trauma

In general, no single crashes or types of collision are taken into consideration for the optimization, rather a simulated accident world is set up, which is composed of vehicles of different masses, of several types of collision and various speeds.
Technical Paper

An Approach for Compatibility Improvement Based on US Traffic Accident Data

Traffic accidents in the United States were analyzed using FARS and NASS data. When classified according to vehicle body type and collision type, fatalities were most common in the case of (1) passenger car to passenger car frontal impacts, (2) passenger car to passenger car side impacts, (3) passenger car to LTV side impacts, (4) passenger car to truck frontal impacts, and (5) passenger car to LTV frontal impacts.
Technical Paper

Accident and Injury Characteristics in Side-Collisions and Protection Criteria in Respect of Belted Occupants

In recent years recognition has been made of the important problem of car side collisions and some basic works concerning accident and injury characteristics have been published. In spite of this the relation between car damage and resulting injuries is not yet known to complete satisfaction. ...The methodology of HUK-accident characteristics is presented. The accident characteristics as to impact area and intension type are analysed and related to the resultant occupant injuries on the basis of side collisions involving of 1.811 passenger cars with 3.064 unbelted occupants.
Technical Paper

Biomechanics of Lower Limb Injuries of Belted Car Drivers and the Influence of Intrusion and Accident Severity

The data has been derived from traffic accidents documented by scientific team at the Accident Research Unit of the Medical University Hannover / Germany, by order of the Federal Highway Research Institute BAST. ...Due to protection applicances in the car, fewer persons sustain injuries in the course of traffic accidents. It can be pointed out that the injury pattern of car occupants was visibly changed by the seat belt, in earlier years the windscreen and steering wheel could hardly still be regarded as injury sources, but in the current situation with belt using of over 90% the injuries of all injured car drivers occur under other circumstances: 19% of all injured car drivers suffered injuries by the steering wheel, 20% by the dashboard, 29% by belt load and 14% caused by parts of the footroom region. ...Persons with pelvic fractures as well as isolated hip joint fractures were included. The accidents are documented during the years 1985 to 94 within a statistical random sample and weighting procedure.
Journal Article

Method Development of Multi-Dimensional Accident Analysis Using Self Organizing Map

Implementation of appropriate safety measures, either from the viewpoint of a vehicle or the society or the infra-structure, it is an important issue to clearly understand the multi-dimension complicated real world accident scenarios. This study proposes a new method to easily capture and to extract the essence of such complicated multi-dimension mutual relationship by visualizing the results of SOM (Self Organizing Map). ...From the SOM assessment of the 16,180 fatal drivers, five clusters were created, and they are characterized as follows: Cluster 1 (Interstate highway accidents), Cluster 2 (Drunk speeding), Cluster 3 (Non speeding lane departure), Cluster 4 (Vehicle to vehicle) and Cluster 5 (Intersection).
Technical Paper

Field Accident Data Analysis of 2nd Row Children and Individual Case Reviews

The objective of this study was to analyze field accident data for 0-7 year old children in the 2nd row by vehicle and crash type, irrespective of restraint use. ...The data was obtained from NASS-CDS for calendar years 1991-2005. Accidents were selected based on 2nd row occupancy in towaway light vehicles with model year 1990 or newer.
Technical Paper

A Method for Evaluating Occupant Protection by Correlating Accident Data with Laboratory Test Data

This paper describes a method for predicting the real-world safety performance of a new or modified car design over the whole range of crash severities where injuries occur. With a knowledge of the crash severity distribution, the overall effectiveness of alternative design approaches can be estimated by correlating lab test dummy responses with real-world injury risks at different crash severities. The procedure can be used for selecting the most effective among several design options or, inversely, for establishing a dummy response limit curve corresponding to a desired occupant protection goal. Tentatively applied to car-to-car side impacts, the method turned out to be a practicable and promising evaluation instrument.