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Technical Paper

Real-world car accident reconstruction methods for crash avoidance system research

2000-06-12
2000-05-0221
The paper describes the multidisciplinary systemic approach leading to the comprehensive methodology used in accident reconstruction in order to determine the best scenario, and to assess initial car speeds, paths and events in the different phases of the accident. ...Upon this first step, a more accurate accident simulation can be calculated with a reconstruction software. Results and examples of applications are given in the most common pre-crash situations (curves, straight roads and intersections). ...The paper describes the multidisciplinary systemic approach leading to the comprehensive methodology used in accident reconstruction in order to determine the best scenario, and to assess initial car speeds, paths and events in the different phases of the accident. This has already been carried out for about 400 car crashes with car occupant injuries (including 6% fatal and 10% severely injured).
Technical Paper

Accident Research and Accident Reconstruction by the EES-Accident Reconstruction Method

1985-02-25
850256
For the evaluation of accident severity, a reconstruction of the accident is necessary. For this purpose, the EES-Accident Reconstruction Method (EES-ARM) was developed. ...The accident analysis method of Daimler-Benz is based on the NATO-Report Form which was derived 1971 from the GM-Long Form. ...For this purpose, the EES-Accident Reconstruction Method (EES-ARM) was developed. It uses all three theorems of conservation: theorem of momentum, theorem of energy and theorem of angular momentum.
Technical Paper

Automated Accident Reconstruction

1975-02-01
750894
The Simulation Model of Automobile Collisions (SMAC) computer program was developed by Calspan Corporation as an aid with which to accurately reconstruct road accidents. Part of the overall objective of the research has been to make the system “user oriented” so that users without an engineering background can operate it with ease. ...This has necessitated developing a START program which automatically runs the SMAC program from a minimum of input data and an iteration routine designed to optimize the input values of velocities to provide a “best fit” reconstruction to the available scene data. A summary of how the START program works is given; however, emphasis is placed in the paper on the development of the iterative routine. ...For each example the results of each successive iteration are given to illustrate the manner in which the program converges to an acceptable reconstruction. This paper is based on research performed under Contract No. DOT-HS-5-01124 with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Electronic Control Module Data in Accident Reconstruction

2000-03-06
2000-01-0466
This paper will briefly discuss the development of the diesel engine ECM from the late 1980's to the present with emphasis on the data recording capabilities related to vehicle accident reconstruction. In particular, vehicle diagnostic sensors which continuously monitor engine speed, vehicle speed, brake switch condition (on/off), clutch position (on/off), cruise switch condition (on/off), etc. will be discussed, as well as software capabilities which track rapid deceleration events (“quick stop occurrences”) and provide a “snapshot” of the vehicle's properties during the moments just prior to and after a collision. ...A heavy truck manufactured in the late 1990's is likely to be equipped with an electronic control module (ECM) which has the capability of being the truck's “flight recorder” in a serious accident. Extracting data from the ECM often answers critical questions regarding vehicle speed and the driver's actions leading up to, during and after a vehicle accident. ...Extracting data from the ECM often answers critical questions regarding vehicle speed and the driver's actions leading up to, during and after a vehicle accident. This paper will briefly discuss the development of the diesel engine ECM from the late 1980's to the present with emphasis on the data recording capabilities related to vehicle accident reconstruction.
Book

Commercial Vehicle Accident Reconstruction and Investigation 2nd Edition

2010-09-27
Reconstructing commercial vehicle accidents is a complex task that is often misunderstood or misinterpreted. Frequently, mistakes are made in determining the vehicle's ability to brake efficiently, the engine speeds and the loading condition. ...This reference book identifies the proper techniques you should use in order to correctly assess a commercial vehicle accident scene. The authors discuss in great detail the unique aspects of commercial vehicle operation, performance and regulations. ...If you are interested in reconstructing or investigating commercial vehicle accidents, or if you are already involved in this but would like a better understanding of the issues, this book will prove to be valuable tool.
Technical Paper

Accident Reconstruction with Data Recorded by Electronic Control Units in Vehicles with a Pre-crash Safety System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1440
Data recorded by vehicle-mounted electronic control units (ECUs) are highly useful in traffic accident reconstruction. In this context, event data recorders (EDRs) are airbag ECU components used to log information from crash events, typically providing data on speed, accelerator operation, RPMs and brake lamp activation for a period of around 5 s before a collision. ...Thus, it is important to check the accuracy of EDR speed data in accident reconstruction. Meanwhile, pre-crash safety systems (PCSs) are also becoming more widespread in automobile usage today. ...Such systems automatically apply braking in hazardous situations, and the relevant data recorded in the ECU are promising in the field of accident reconstruction. This study involved physical tests in the form of simulated rear-end collisions and the collection of recorded PCS data at the post-test stage.
Technical Paper

The Use of Stationary Object Radar Sensor Data from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) in Accident Reconstruction

2016-04-05
2016-01-1465
The data from these sensors is unique because it measures objective environment information surrounding a vehicle, which can play a role in reconstructing and understanding the contributing factors of an accident. As more vehicles become equipped with advanced safety systems and the requisite sensors for automated vehicles, accident investigators will need to become familiar with system functionality, the data that the sensors measure and may record, as well as the limitations of that data in order to effectively and accurately analyze a crash. ...As more vehicles become equipped with advanced safety systems and the requisite sensors for automated vehicles, accident investigators will need to become familiar with system functionality, the data that the sensors measure and may record, as well as the limitations of that data in order to effectively and accurately analyze a crash. ...In addition, the authors propose in general how data from radars could be used to elucidate the location of fixed objects in the environment surrounding a vehicle for the purpose of understanding an accident.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Sliding Mode Observers for Fault Reconstruction on the ADDSAFE Functional Engineering Simulator

2011-10-18
2011-01-2802
The FDI schemes will ultimately be evaluated in the Industrial Benchmarking and Verification FES which uses Monte Carlo methods to generate a statistical distribution and covers all of the desired flight conditions, perturbations and uncertainties in the aircraft parameters under investigation. ...A robust sliding mode reconstruction scheme for the aircraft lateral axis, based on an LPV system representation is presented. ...The sliding mode LPV scheme utilizes LMIs to synthesize the gains of the observer to minimize the effect of uncertainty on the reconstruction signal. The equivalent output error injection signals are obtained from a second order sliding mode structure, which is less susceptible to noise compared to the typical signum function associated with first order sliding.
Technical Paper

An Historical Overview of Research in Traffic Accident Investigation Activities

1975-02-01
750891
Two previous reviews of the research aspects of traffic accident investigations are used as starting points for presenting an up-date of accident investigation activities, both in the U.S. and in foreign countries. ...Elements of national accident investigation programs are discussed as well as areas of current accident investigation technology. ...An international accident investigation feasibility study under the auspice of NATO is also studied.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Axle Shaft Failures for Use in Crash Reconstruction

2005-04-11
2005-01-1193
The causes, conditions and circumstances of axle shaft failures are analyzed for use in reconstructing a variety of crashes. A literature search was performed to determine the frequency and the role of vehicle defects, such as axle shaft failures, to crash causation. Real world case studies of axle shaft failures are presented. Static testing force levels required to fracture axle shafts are compared to lateral forces encountered under normal and crash avoidance driving conditions. Vehicle and roadway physical evidence is presented when axle shafts are caused to “fracture” under dynamic testing. Results of the dynamic testing are compared to real world case studies.
Technical Paper

Motorist Head and Body Impact Analysis, Methodologies and Reconstruction

1985-02-25
850097
Motorist impact marks and embossments provide valuable data relating to evaluation of injury, crash energy management, occupant positioning and collision severity. Research techniques presented enable analysis of these impacts. Biomechanical techniques for motorist head impact analysis are presented along with static crush calibration and dynamic impact replication of passenger compartment head dents. Evaluation and identification of occupant induced marks on restraint systems are discussed as well as determination of who was driving. Ejection findings of the fifties and sixties are clarified by case studies that show how vehicle design changes may switch the portal of ejection from doors to windows.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the Relationship Between Active Safety and Accident Prevention

1978-01-01
785046
Determination of driver reaction and vehicle response to driving incidents involving artificially-induced danger and surprise; such tests can safely be conducted on driving courses. 4. Reconstruction and evaluation of traffic accidents through use of questionnaires; Daimler-Benz has already made use of such questionnaires. ...Driver error is the cause of most accidents. Yet "active safety" is difficult to analyze due to the complexity of the processes involved and no unanimity of analytical procedures exists.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Results Obtained With Different Analytical Techniques for Reconstruction of Highway Accidents

1975-02-01
750893
For several staged collisions, results obtained with closed form reconstruction calculations and with a computerized step-by-step procedure are compared with measured responses. ...A refined, closed-form reconstruction procedure is defined, derivations of the analytical relationships are outlined and detailed results of sample applications are presented. ...Since a high degree of success was achieved in the refinement of such calculation procedures, the end product, by itself, is considered to be a valuable aid to accident investigations.
Technical Paper

Results of Selected Applications to Actual Highway Accidents of SMAC Reconstruction Program

1974-02-01
741179
This paper reports the application of the Simulation Model of Automobile Collisions (SMAC) computer program to selected cases of actual highway accidents. Since SMAC was developed to allow accidents to be accurately reconstructed by operators without a detailed knowledge of engineering mechanics, recent developments have concentrated on providing a Start routine. ...Particular emphasis is given to those types of accident that are subject to large errors when reconstructed by the more standard analytical procedures; for example, intersection accidents and accidents involving large spinout trajectories....This program automatically generates the inputs required for SMAC, including collision speed estimates, from a minimum amount of information available at the accident scene. A brief summary of how Start works is given, followed by a discussion of actual cases.
Technical Paper

The New Approach of In-Depth-Accident-Investigation based on the Methodology for Traffic Accident Database on Scenarios TADS

2016-04-05
2016-01-1472
Such simulations should, of course, be based on real world scenario such as the pre-crash phase of real world accidents. Several methodologies for building up accident scenarios have been developed in the past. ...This paper shows a new method for generating pre-crash scenarios directly from the reconstruction of the accident by using the software PC-Crash1. The new method was developed by the Medical University Hannover (MHH) and the Fraunhofer Institute for Transportation Dresden (Fraunhofer IVI). ...It is based on transferring all information (participant-, vehicle-, environment- and motion-data) from the reconstruction file into a scenario-database. In order to analyse the pre-crash situation of real-world accidents and changing boundary conditions (e.g. introduction of certain active safety systems), a socalled Pre Crash Matrix (PCM) was developed.
Technical Paper

Brazil's Option to Join iGLAD - International Harmonized In-Depth Accident Data

2017-11-07
2017-36-0183
In fact, a consistent method for the development of strategies and measures to prevent accidents and mitigate injury severity comes from accident database analysis. Although databases such as national statistics are available for many countries for assessing accident situations, examining trends, or carrying out similar analysis; the identification of accident and injury causation and the evaluation of countermeasures require a higher level of detail. ...This paper gives an overview of the Brazilian data in the framework of the iGLAD initiative as a new field crash data set and shows its unique opportunities for road accident analysis in a global scope, which are not provided by any other accident data source and will give stronger support for efficient and consistent traffic policies. ...This paper describes the Brazilian initiative’s approach to the challenge of being aligned with iGLAD (Initiative for the Global Harmonization of Accident Data, starting as a project in 2011 and collecting data since 2007) on the delivery of its first set of accident cases from 2016.
Journal Article

Analysis of Fuel Cell Vehicles Equipped with Compressed Hydrogen Storage Systems from a Road Accident Safety Perspective

2011-04-12
2011-01-0545
The study is based on accident data from the GIDAS (German In-Depth Accident Study) database. Deformation matrices for each passenger car in the database are defined over a deformation grid largely independent of vehicle type and shape. ...The potential impact of real world accident scenarios on fuel cell vehicles equipped with a compressed hydrogen storage system is analyzed from a component point of view. ...It is investigated to what extent different real world accident scenarios with conventional vehicles have caused deformation of the vehicle in the area where a hydrogen tank would have been integrated in a fuel cell vehicle.
Technical Paper

Typical Pedestrian Accident Scenarios in China and Crash Severity Mitigation by Autonomous Emergency Braking Systems

2015-04-14
2015-01-1464
The objective of this work was to describe typical accident scenarios for pedestrian accidents in China. In-depth accident analysis was conducted to support development of test procedures for assessing Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems. ...The China In-depth Accident Study (CIDAS) database was searched from 2011 to 2014 for pedestrian accidents. A total of 358 pedestrian accidents were collected from the on-site in-depth investigation in the first phase of CIDAS project (2011-2014). ...A total of 358 pedestrian accidents were collected from the on-site in-depth investigation in the first phase of CIDAS project (2011-2014).
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