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Technical Paper

Real-world car accident reconstruction methods for crash avoidance system research

2000-06-12
2000-05-0221
The paper describes the multidisciplinary systemic approach leading to the comprehensive methodology used in accident reconstruction in order to determine the best scenario, and to assess initial car speeds, paths and events in the different phases of the accident. ...Upon this first step, a more accurate accident simulation can be calculated with a reconstruction software. Results and examples of applications are given in the most common pre-crash situations (curves, straight roads and intersections). ...The paper describes the multidisciplinary systemic approach leading to the comprehensive methodology used in accident reconstruction in order to determine the best scenario, and to assess initial car speeds, paths and events in the different phases of the accident. This has already been carried out for about 400 car crashes with car occupant injuries (including 6% fatal and 10% severely injured).
Book

Commercial Vehicle Accident Reconstruction and Investigation 2nd Edition

2010-09-27
Reconstructing commercial vehicle accidents is a complex task that is often misunderstood or misinterpreted. Frequently, mistakes are made in determining the vehicle's ability to brake efficiently, the engine speeds and the loading condition. ...This reference book identifies the proper techniques you should use in order to correctly assess a commercial vehicle accident scene. The authors discuss in great detail the unique aspects of commercial vehicle operation, performance and regulations. ...If you are interested in reconstructing or investigating commercial vehicle accidents, or if you are already involved in this but would like a better understanding of the issues, this book will prove to be valuable tool.
Technical Paper

Accident Reconstruction with Data Recorded by Electronic Control Units in Vehicles with a Pre-crash Safety System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1440
Data recorded by vehicle-mounted electronic control units (ECUs) are highly useful in traffic accident reconstruction. In this context, event data recorders (EDRs) are airbag ECU components used to log information from crash events, typically providing data on speed, accelerator operation, RPMs and brake lamp activation for a period of around 5 s before a collision. ...Thus, it is important to check the accuracy of EDR speed data in accident reconstruction. Meanwhile, pre-crash safety systems (PCSs) are also becoming more widespread in automobile usage today. ...Such systems automatically apply braking in hazardous situations, and the relevant data recorded in the ECU are promising in the field of accident reconstruction. This study involved physical tests in the form of simulated rear-end collisions and the collection of recorded PCS data at the post-test stage.
Technical Paper

The Use of Stationary Object Radar Sensor Data from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) in Accident Reconstruction

2016-04-05
2016-01-1465
The data from these sensors is unique because it measures objective environment information surrounding a vehicle, which can play a role in reconstructing and understanding the contributing factors of an accident. As more vehicles become equipped with advanced safety systems and the requisite sensors for automated vehicles, accident investigators will need to become familiar with system functionality, the data that the sensors measure and may record, as well as the limitations of that data in order to effectively and accurately analyze a crash. ...As more vehicles become equipped with advanced safety systems and the requisite sensors for automated vehicles, accident investigators will need to become familiar with system functionality, the data that the sensors measure and may record, as well as the limitations of that data in order to effectively and accurately analyze a crash. ...In addition, the authors propose in general how data from radars could be used to elucidate the location of fixed objects in the environment surrounding a vehicle for the purpose of understanding an accident.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Axle Shaft Failures for Use in Crash Reconstruction

2005-04-11
2005-01-1193
The causes, conditions and circumstances of axle shaft failures are analyzed for use in reconstructing a variety of crashes. A literature search was performed to determine the frequency and the role of vehicle defects, such as axle shaft failures, to crash causation. Real world case studies of axle shaft failures are presented. Static testing force levels required to fracture axle shafts are compared to lateral forces encountered under normal and crash avoidance driving conditions. Vehicle and roadway physical evidence is presented when axle shafts are caused to “fracture” under dynamic testing. Results of the dynamic testing are compared to real world case studies.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the Relationship Between Active Safety and Accident Prevention

1978-01-01
785046
Determination of driver reaction and vehicle response to driving incidents involving artificially-induced danger and surprise; such tests can safely be conducted on driving courses. 4. Reconstruction and evaluation of traffic accidents through use of questionnaires; Daimler-Benz has already made use of such questionnaires. ...Driver error is the cause of most accidents. Yet "active safety" is difficult to analyze due to the complexity of the processes involved and no unanimity of analytical procedures exists.
Technical Paper

Accurate Flight Parameter Reconstruction from ATC Radar Data – A New Approach

1999-10-19
1999-01-5605
Previous work on this problem has used a rectilinear approach to the calculations involved in the flight parameter reconstruction. The rectilinear approach gives excellent results for relatively straight flight; however, it routinely underestimates the airspeed and the bank angle when the airplane is maneuvering. ...In the present study, the authors present a curvilinear approach to flight parameter reconstruction that addresses this shortcoming. The analysis presented shows that the curvilinear approach is a far superior tool than the rectilinear approach for the reconstruction of maneuvering flight including steep turns and high-speed spirals. ...The analysis presented shows that the curvilinear approach is a far superior tool than the rectilinear approach for the reconstruction of maneuvering flight including steep turns and high-speed spirals.
Technical Paper

The New Approach of In-Depth-Accident-Investigation based on the Methodology for Traffic Accident Database on Scenarios TADS

2016-04-05
2016-01-1472
Such simulations should, of course, be based on real world scenario such as the pre-crash phase of real world accidents. Several methodologies for building up accident scenarios have been developed in the past. ...This paper shows a new method for generating pre-crash scenarios directly from the reconstruction of the accident by using the software PC-Crash1. The new method was developed by the Medical University Hannover (MHH) and the Fraunhofer Institute for Transportation Dresden (Fraunhofer IVI). ...It is based on transferring all information (participant-, vehicle-, environment- and motion-data) from the reconstruction file into a scenario-database. In order to analyse the pre-crash situation of real-world accidents and changing boundary conditions (e.g. introduction of certain active safety systems), a socalled Pre Crash Matrix (PCM) was developed.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of the Accident Avoidance and Severity Reduction Potential of Radar Warning,Radar Actuated, and Anti-Lock Braking Systems

1977-02-01
770266
A group of 215 in-depth accident reports prepared as part of a tri-level accident causation study by a multidisciplinary team was examined to assess the benefit derived from the hypothetical application of various combinations of radar warning, radar actuated, and anti-lock braking systems. ...On one extreme, it was found that two-wheel anti-lock systems, by themselves, had relatively little accident prevention potential; only one of the 215 accidents (0.5%) would definitely have been prevented by such a system, although with less assurance there was some possibility of prevention of up to eight accidents (3.7%). ...On the other extreme, the most complex of the systems defined, comprised of a non-cooperative radar system with both actuation and warning potential, coupled with a four-wheel anti-lock system, would definitely have prevented 39 of these accidents (18.0%), with some possibility of prevention of up to 90 accidents (41.9% of those examined).
Technical Paper

Typical Pedestrian Accident Scenarios in China and Crash Severity Mitigation by Autonomous Emergency Braking Systems

2015-04-14
2015-01-1464
The objective of this work was to describe typical accident scenarios for pedestrian accidents in China. In-depth accident analysis was conducted to support development of test procedures for assessing Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems. ...The China In-depth Accident Study (CIDAS) database was searched from 2011 to 2014 for pedestrian accidents. A total of 358 pedestrian accidents were collected from the on-site in-depth investigation in the first phase of CIDAS project (2011-2014). ...A total of 358 pedestrian accidents were collected from the on-site in-depth investigation in the first phase of CIDAS project (2011-2014).
Technical Paper

A Realistic Approach to Automobile Accident Avoidance Training

1977-02-01
770802
A different approach to training automobile accident avoidance driving skills is being developed. It is structured to provide students the opportunity to practice selecting and implementing effective crash avoidance strategies in response to realistic conflict situations that often precede actual accidents. ...It is structured to provide students the opportunity to practice selecting and implementing effective crash avoidance strategies in response to realistic conflict situations that often precede actual accidents. Two new teaching techniques have been developed to provide this realistic experience in dealing with both single-car (the student driver's) and two-car situations.
Technical Paper

Discerning the State of Crash Avoidance in the Accident Experience

1985-01-01
856033
This paper addresses the risks of motor vehicle involvement in highway accidents. Such risks are determined from U.S. accident experience in the past 10 years. Risks are analyzed as a function of vehicle type, car market class, make, nameplate, and model year for accidents of various types and various severities. ...Risks are analyzed as a function of vehicle type, car market class, make, nameplate, and model year for accidents of various types and various severities. Both absolute risks, per unit exposure, and relative risks are addressed. ...Single driver accidents and rollovers. Whether pre- or post-impact, receive special attention due to their risk sensitivity to car class.
Technical Paper

Mechatronics Based Accident Alarming System with Automatic Roadblock Prevention System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1728
In any unlikely event of accidents or vehicle breakdown, there is accumulation of traffic which results in road-blockage and causes in convenience to other vehicles. ...If this happens in remote areas, the accidents victims are left unattended and there is delay in providing emergency services. In case of traffic, it obstructs the entry of ambulance and rescue team which results in death of passengers. ...To prevent this mishap, a mechatronics based road block avoidance and accident alarming system is designed which is automated by the use of sensors. The road-block is detected with the help sensors located at regular intervals on road.
Journal Article

Method Development of Multi-Dimensional Accident Analysis Using Self Organizing Map

2013-04-08
2013-01-0758
Implementation of appropriate safety measures, either from the viewpoint of a vehicle or the society or the infra-structure, it is an important issue to clearly understand the multi-dimension complicated real world accident scenarios. This study proposes a new method to easily capture and to extract the essence of such complicated multi-dimension mutual relationship by visualizing the results of SOM (Self Organizing Map). ...From the SOM assessment of the 16,180 fatal drivers, five clusters were created, and they are characterized as follows: Cluster 1 (Interstate highway accidents), Cluster 2 (Drunk speeding), Cluster 3 (Non speeding lane departure), Cluster 4 (Vehicle to vehicle) and Cluster 5 (Intersection).
Technical Paper

National Transportation Safety Board Accident Investigations and Recommendations on Technologies to Prevent Rear-End Collisions

2001-10-01
2001-01-3243
This report will describe the accidents that NTSB investigated in 1999 and 2000, how technology can help drivers prevent such accidents, and NTSB's position on these technologies that can save lives. ...This report will describe the accidents that NTSB investigated in 1999 and 2000, how technology can help drivers prevent such accidents, and NTSB's position on these technologies that can save lives.
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