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Standard

Ethics for Accident Investigation and Reconstruction

2011-02-18
CURRENT
J2314_201102
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to promote the highest professional and personal conduct of practitioners in the fields of accident investigation and reconstruction. It encourages the continuous application of high ethical principles to one’s own endeavors. ...It also encourages the application of these same principles to others associated with accident investigation and reconstruction.
Technical Paper

On the Concept of Inter-Vehicle Friction and Its Application in Automobile Accident Reconstruction

2007-04-16
2007-01-0744
Occasionally, an accident reconstruction analyst is confronted with the task of reconstructing an accident with configurations that do not lend themselves to straightforward analytical methods. ...The analyst may often turn to accident reconstruction software such as the various versions of SMAC and some impulse-momentum approaches like PC-Crash and VCRware. ...This can lead to the modification of the inter-vehicle friction value to tune the simulation result; typically in an effort to force the final rest positions of the collision partners to match documented accident scene evidence. In this paper, the concept and application of the inter-vehicle friction coefficient is examined.
Book

Vehicle Accident Analysis and Reconstruction Methods, Second Edition

2011-04-12
Thoroughly revised, this new edition builds on the original exploration of accident analysis, reconstruction, and vehicle design. Enhanced with new material and improved chapters on key topics, an expanded glossary of automotive terms, and a bibliography at the end of the book providing further reading suggestions make this an essential resource reference for engineers involved in litigation, forensic investigation, automotive safety, and crash reconstruction. ...Designed for the experienced practitioner, this new book aims to help reconstruction specialists with problems they may encounter in everyday analysis. The authors demonstrate how to take the physics behind accidents out of the idealized world and into practical situations. ...The authors demonstrate how to take the physics behind accidents out of the idealized world and into practical situations. Real-world examples are used to illustrate the methods, clarify important concepts, and provide practical applications to those working in the field.
Technical Paper

Real-world car accident reconstruction methods for crash avoidance system research

2000-06-12
2000-05-0221
The paper describes the multidisciplinary systemic approach leading to the comprehensive methodology used in accident reconstruction in order to determine the best scenario, and to assess initial car speeds, paths and events in the different phases of the accident. ...Upon this first step, a more accurate accident simulation can be calculated with a reconstruction software. Results and examples of applications are given in the most common pre-crash situations (curves, straight roads and intersections). ...The paper describes the multidisciplinary systemic approach leading to the comprehensive methodology used in accident reconstruction in order to determine the best scenario, and to assess initial car speeds, paths and events in the different phases of the accident. This has already been carried out for about 400 car crashes with car occupant injuries (including 6% fatal and 10% severely injured).
Technical Paper

A Primer on Automobile Accident Reconstruction

1989-02-01
890631
Motor vehicle accident reconstruction has become a very recognized and essential part of the extensions and applications of engineering training. ...This paper begins by defining a motor vehicle accident reconstruction and proceeds to discuss the qualifications and responsibilities of an accident reconstructionist. ...This paper begins by defining a motor vehicle accident reconstruction and proceeds to discuss the qualifications and responsibilities of an accident reconstructionist. Additionally, considerable emphasis is placed upon defining procedures for performing the various tasks that are involved in a reconstruction.
Technical Paper

Presentation Tools for Accident Reconstruction

1987-02-01
870426
A graphic artist with training in engineering and the sciences can be an essential member of the accident reconstruction team. With his general technical knowledge and his experience with visual presentations, he can provide the reconstructionist with valuable support in preparing presentations for lay or technical audiences. ...This paper discusses simple but effective techniques for graphic presentation of accident reconstructions. A brief discussion of what information to provide to the artist is included, as well as an example of how a typical courtroom exhibit is prepared.
Technical Paper

An Overview of the Evolution of Computer Assisted Motor Vehicle Accident Reconstruction

1987-10-01
871991
In addition, a brief computer development history is discussed to demonstrate how the evolution of computer assisted vehicle accident reconstruction becomes feasible for a reconstructionist. Possible future research in computer reconstruction is also discussed. ...This paper presents an overview of the evolution of computer simulations in vehicle collision and occupant kinematic reconstructions. The basic principles behind these simulations, the origin of these programs and the evolution of these programs from a basic analytical mathematical model to a sophisticated computer program are discussed. ...Possible future research in computer reconstruction is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Tire Models for Vehicle Dynamic Simulation and Accident Reconstruction

2009-04-20
2009-01-0102
This is particularly true for accident reconstruction applications where vehicle motions can occur over wide ranging kinematic wheel conditions. ...This paper includes a discussion of tire force terminology, tire force mechanics, the measurement and modeling of tire force components and combined tire force models currently used in simulation software for the reconstruction of accidents. The paper discusses the difference between the idealized tire force ellipse and an actual tire friction ellipse. ...The example simulations presented in this paper are not intended to reflect the way vehicle dynamic simulation programs are used typically in accident reconstruction.
Technical Paper

Pickup Truck Rollover Accident Reconstruction Using the ATB Model

1995-02-01
950133
To demonstrate the Articulated Total Body (ATB) model's capability to predict complex rollover accidents, a rollover accident was selected from the National Accident Sampling System (NASS) and simulated. ...The selected accident case involved a pickup truck, crashing at high speed and completing three rolls. The pickup truck was modeled as a single rigid segment with fifteen contact hyperellipsoids rigidly attached to it. ...The initial conditions were defined to match the data in the NASS accident report as closely as possible. Angular and linear accelerations, velocities, and displacements of the vehicle were predicted and reported as well as the ground-vehicle contact forces and the resulting vehicle body deflections.
Book

Commercial Vehicle Accident Reconstruction and Investigation 2nd Edition

2010-09-27
Reconstructing commercial vehicle accidents is a complex task that is often misunderstood or misinterpreted. Frequently, mistakes are made in determining the vehicle's ability to brake efficiently, the engine speeds and the loading condition. ...This reference book identifies the proper techniques you should use in order to correctly assess a commercial vehicle accident scene. The authors discuss in great detail the unique aspects of commercial vehicle operation, performance and regulations. ...If you are interested in reconstructing or investigating commercial vehicle accidents, or if you are already involved in this but would like a better understanding of the issues, this book will prove to be valuable tool.
Technical Paper

PC Based Accident Reconstruction Animation Using Autodesk 3D Studio

1992-02-01
920756
For sometime, accident reconstruction animation has been limited to graphic workstations running expensive animation software. ...This paper discusses how accident reconstruction animation is produced using a personal computer and Autodesk's 3D Studio. ...An overview of the 3D Studio software package is given, and the application of 3D Studio for accident reconstruction animation is described. Examples are given of the generation of three dimensional geometries, including accident sites and the vehicles involved.
Technical Paper

Accident Reconstruction with Data Recorded by Electronic Control Units in Vehicles with a Pre-crash Safety System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1440
Data recorded by vehicle-mounted electronic control units (ECUs) are highly useful in traffic accident reconstruction. In this context, event data recorders (EDRs) are airbag ECU components used to log information from crash events, typically providing data on speed, accelerator operation, RPMs and brake lamp activation for a period of around 5 s before a collision. ...Thus, it is important to check the accuracy of EDR speed data in accident reconstruction. Meanwhile, pre-crash safety systems (PCSs) are also becoming more widespread in automobile usage today. ...Such systems automatically apply braking in hazardous situations, and the relevant data recorded in the ECU are promising in the field of accident reconstruction. This study involved physical tests in the form of simulated rear-end collisions and the collection of recorded PCS data at the post-test stage.
Technical Paper

The Accuracy of Photogrammetry vs. Hands-on Measurement Techniques used in Accident Reconstruction

2010-04-12
2010-01-0065
A study was conducted to assess the relative accuracy of two measurement techniques commonly used for vehicle measurements in damaged-based accident reconstruction. The traditional technique of hands-on measurement was compared with the use of photogrammetry for measurement of targeted damaged vehicles. ...Hands-on measurements were obtained via two groups of qualified professionals in the field of accident reconstruction, with access to both the vehicles and traditional measuring equipment such as tape measures, crush jig and plumb bobs.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of 3D Accident Sites Using USGS LiDAR, Aerial Images, and Photogrammetry

2019-04-02
2019-01-0423
The accident reconstruction community has previously relied upon photographs and site visits to recreate a scene. ...This offers many unique benefits to the reconstruction community including: safety, budget, time, and historical preservation. This paper presents a methodology for collecting this data and using it in conjunction with aerial imagery, and camera matching photogrammetry to create 3D computer models of the scene without a site visit.
Book

Rollover Crash Reconstruction

2018-08-07
Each stage of the accident provides valuable insight into the application of reconstruction methodologies. Rollover Accident Reconstruction focuses on tripped, single vehicle rollover crashes that terminate without striking a fixed object. ...Rollover Accident Reconstruction focuses on tripped, single vehicle rollover crashes that terminate without striking a fixed object. ...Rollover accidents continue to be a leading contributor of vehicle deaths. While this continues to be true, it is pertinent to understand the entire crash process.
Technical Paper

The Use of Stationary Object Radar Sensor Data from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) in Accident Reconstruction

2016-04-05
2016-01-1465
The data from these sensors is unique because it measures objective environment information surrounding a vehicle, which can play a role in reconstructing and understanding the contributing factors of an accident. As more vehicles become equipped with advanced safety systems and the requisite sensors for automated vehicles, accident investigators will need to become familiar with system functionality, the data that the sensors measure and may record, as well as the limitations of that data in order to effectively and accurately analyze a crash. ...As more vehicles become equipped with advanced safety systems and the requisite sensors for automated vehicles, accident investigators will need to become familiar with system functionality, the data that the sensors measure and may record, as well as the limitations of that data in order to effectively and accurately analyze a crash. ...In addition, the authors propose in general how data from radars could be used to elucidate the location of fixed objects in the environment surrounding a vehicle for the purpose of understanding an accident.
Technical Paper

On the Development of a Comprehensive Hazard Modeling Tool through Distributed Simulation: Learning from the Columbia Space Shuttle Accident

2005-10-03
2005-01-3368
Although there was no human casualty reported, the outcome of this accident could have been much different. In this paper, we investigate the use of distributed simulation and information fusion to better predict the effects, in terms of expectations of casualties (EC), of the different hazards produced by an accidental or instructed loss of such a vehicle.
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