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Technical Paper

Real-world car accident reconstruction methods for crash avoidance system research

2000-06-12
2000-05-0221
The paper describes the multidisciplinary systemic approach leading to the comprehensive methodology used in accident reconstruction in order to determine the best scenario, and to assess initial car speeds, paths and events in the different phases of the accident. ...Upon this first step, a more accurate accident simulation can be calculated with a reconstruction software. Results and examples of applications are given in the most common pre-crash situations (curves, straight roads and intersections). ...The paper describes the multidisciplinary systemic approach leading to the comprehensive methodology used in accident reconstruction in order to determine the best scenario, and to assess initial car speeds, paths and events in the different phases of the accident. This has already been carried out for about 400 car crashes with car occupant injuries (including 6% fatal and 10% severely injured).
Technical Paper

Vision and Visibility in Vehicular Accident Reconstruction

1990-02-01
900369
This determination must be made with proper consideration of both inter- and intra-person variability The goal of accident reconstruction is to determine what happened in an accident, and why it happened. This process involves a thorough examination of the available evidence. ...Furthermore, the question of why the accident happened may not be addressed at all by analysis of the physical evidence alone, as almost all accidents are influenced by the performance of the people involved in the accident. Human performance issues such as vision, attention, and distraction, often play a large role in why an accident happens. ...The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the value of considering issues of vision and visibility when reconstructing an accident. Illustrative examples from actual accidents will be used throughout.
Journal Article

GPS Device Comparison for Accident Reconstruction

2012-04-16
2012-01-0997
The GPS (Global Positioning System) is a navigational tool available to the public, comprising in part a network of satellites in orbit broadcasting signals to GPS receivers on earth. Due in large part to the very accurate clocks in the system, a GPS receiver that receives a number of these signals simultaneously can then establish its location on earth. Some GPS receiver models have the capability to record a history of the latitude and longitude co-ordinates at known times, and these may later be downloaded and viewed on a computer using applicable software. Effectively, this provides the equivalent of a bread crumb trail of the path taken by the receiver, although the frequency of the data points can vary substantially from one model to another, and it may not be adjustable by the user. By plotting the information on a map, the trail can be viewed and the position-time history of the vehicle may become evident.
Technical Paper

Perception/Reaction Time Values for Accident Reconstruction

1989-02-01
890732
Field literature in testing and experimentation on general human perception and reaction times, was reviewed to better address questions on the parameters of driving performance. Brake reaction time studies and driver visual search studies were reviewed with attendant material on the effects of aging, intoxication and fatigue. A short examination is made on the degree of increase in “surprise intrusion” event upper values from simple human basic reaction time testing to a real-time pedestrian crossing event in real-world urban driving. These upper range values began at 0.78 second in the laboratory environment and became 2.50 seconds on an urban street in real-time.
Technical Paper

An Inexpensive, All Solid-state Video and Data Recorder for Accident Reconstruction

1999-03-01
1999-01-1299
A video and data recording is very helpful for accurate accident reconstruction. We have made a prototype of a “personal eye witness”: a small video camera with solid state memory and a short recording time. ...The camera records continuously until it senses an accident, then it saves a video record of the events surrounding the accident in time. Since video is available from both before and after the collision, accident reconstruction becomes easier. ...Since video is available from both before and after the collision, accident reconstruction becomes easier. The camera uses only solid state memory with no moving parts, can be manufactured inexpensively, and can be packaged in a crash-resistant and tamper-resistant module.
Technical Paper

Introduction to Traffic Signal Data Loggers and their Application to Accident Reconstruction

2018-04-03
2018-01-0527
Until relatively recently, investigators were limited by the absence of any recording devices within the systems used for traffic signal phasing and timing. Accident reconstruction methods have long relied on the generalized signal phasing and timings programmed for that intersection by the responsible jurisdiction, combined with the vehicle dynamics calculated for the collision sequence in conjunction with witness testimony regarding signal indications and phase changes. ...This paper also presents how to obtain, analyze, and interpret the data logger data and possible applications of such data to accident reconstruction.
Technical Paper

Lane Change Maneuver Modeling for Accident Reconstruction Applications

2002-03-04
2002-01-0817
Lane change maneuvers are often implemented in typical driving applications and more severe swerving maneuvers are occasionally performed in order to avoid motor vehicle collisions. For accident reconstruction purposes, it is necessary to accurately model the vehicle motion and driver response during a lane change maneuver.
Book

Commercial Vehicle Accident Reconstruction and Investigation 2nd Edition

2010-09-27
Reconstructing commercial vehicle accidents is a complex task that is often misunderstood or misinterpreted. Frequently, mistakes are made in determining the vehicle's ability to brake efficiently, the engine speeds and the loading condition. ...This reference book identifies the proper techniques you should use in order to correctly assess a commercial vehicle accident scene. The authors discuss in great detail the unique aspects of commercial vehicle operation, performance and regulations. ...If you are interested in reconstructing or investigating commercial vehicle accidents, or if you are already involved in this but would like a better understanding of the issues, this book will prove to be valuable tool.
Technical Paper

Accident Reconstruction with Data Recorded by Electronic Control Units in Vehicles with a Pre-crash Safety System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1440
Data recorded by vehicle-mounted electronic control units (ECUs) are highly useful in traffic accident reconstruction. In this context, event data recorders (EDRs) are airbag ECU components used to log information from crash events, typically providing data on speed, accelerator operation, RPMs and brake lamp activation for a period of around 5 s before a collision. ...Thus, it is important to check the accuracy of EDR speed data in accident reconstruction. Meanwhile, pre-crash safety systems (PCSs) are also becoming more widespread in automobile usage today. ...Such systems automatically apply braking in hazardous situations, and the relevant data recorded in the ECU are promising in the field of accident reconstruction. This study involved physical tests in the form of simulated rear-end collisions and the collection of recorded PCS data at the post-test stage.
Technical Paper

Motorcycle and Semi Truck Accident Reconstruction - A Case Study of Human Factors and Avoidability Analysis

1989-02-01
890733
This accident reconstruction is an actual case that went to trial in the State of Oregon. The motorcyclist (plaintiff) brought suit against the truck driver's employer (defendant). ...Talbott Associates, Inc. were retained to do an accident reconstruction, including speeds, collision analysis and avoidability analysis. At the time of trial we proviced expert testimony.
Technical Paper

The Use of Stationary Object Radar Sensor Data from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) in Accident Reconstruction

2016-04-05
2016-01-1465
The data from these sensors is unique because it measures objective environment information surrounding a vehicle, which can play a role in reconstructing and understanding the contributing factors of an accident. As more vehicles become equipped with advanced safety systems and the requisite sensors for automated vehicles, accident investigators will need to become familiar with system functionality, the data that the sensors measure and may record, as well as the limitations of that data in order to effectively and accurately analyze a crash. ...As more vehicles become equipped with advanced safety systems and the requisite sensors for automated vehicles, accident investigators will need to become familiar with system functionality, the data that the sensors measure and may record, as well as the limitations of that data in order to effectively and accurately analyze a crash. ...In addition, the authors propose in general how data from radars could be used to elucidate the location of fixed objects in the environment surrounding a vehicle for the purpose of understanding an accident.
Technical Paper

Side Impacts to the Passenger Compartment — Clinical Studies from Field Accident Investigations

1989-02-01
890379
The side impact, recently and currently the subject to of much debate, controversy and proposed NHTSA rule making, is a difficult type of crash to significantly reduce serious injuries and fatalites. Results from real-world crash investigations presents a confusing picture for the near-side passenger compartment crash. A direct relationship between the amount of crush and injury severity levels (MAIS) is not apparent. Exemplar cases of tow-a-way/injury crashes are presented at all AIS injury level of drivers in crashes with direct driver door crush damage.
Technical Paper

CRASH ANALYSIS AND RECONSTRUCTION: A US PERSPECTIVE

2008-01-09
2008-28-0009
This paper will present an overview of the crash analysis and reconstruction activities conducted by Calspan’s Crash Data Research Center. It will open with a review of police reported data and the value of the Police Accident Report for conducting full-scope crash investigation programs that focus on vehicle crashworthiness issues, the evaluation of occupant protection systems, and occupant injury outcome in relation to crash severity. ...It will open with a review of police reported data and the value of the Police Accident Report for conducting full-scope crash investigation programs that focus on vehicle crashworthiness issues, the evaluation of occupant protection systems, and occupant injury outcome in relation to crash severity. ...Aspects of the crash investigation process relating to damage severity assessment, restraint evaluation, determination of occupant trajectories and contact point, injury sources and mechanisms, and reconstruction of vehicle speeds will be summarized. A brief discussion of Event Data Recorders will also be addressed.
Technical Paper

Computer Program for Reconstruction of Highway Accidents

1973-02-01
730980
In one of the presented applications to a staged collision, the initial conditions were kept unknown until completion of the reconstruction process. Results of sample applications to actual highway accidents are included. ...The Simulation Model of Automobile Collisions (SMAC) computer program has been developed for the purpose of achieving uniformity in the use of analytical techniques for interpretation of physical evidence in investigations of highway accidents. The comprehensive output information of the SMAC program (kinematics, tire tracks, and vehicle damage) permits extensive, detailed comparisons with physical evidence in the iterative runs used to achieve a “best fit,” and the predicted vehicle responses provide a basis for relatively refined categorization of occupant exposures. ...Computer graphics displays of reconstructed accidents, including rest positions, tracks, and damage, are presented.
Technical Paper

Using Event Data Recorders in Collision Reconstruction

2002-03-04
2002-01-0535
Examples will be provided of additional, less traditional, uses involving the correlation of data recorded by EDR's during collision events with the results of reconstructions based on accident scene and vehicle crush data. Topics will include Delta-V, pre-crash vehicle motions and operation, driver perception/reaction times, driver actions, and vehicle acceleration/deceleration. ...Analysis of the pre-impact motions of vehicles with antilock brakes, impacts involving vehicles with prior damage, and chain-reaction accidents will be discussed.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Accident Control in Fleet Operation

1935-01-01
350080
Orr presents selected quotations from representative fleet operators and other authorities regarding operating practices, relations with the general public, accident control, future design of highways, driver evaluation, accident-proneness and the like, together with an illustrated description of a portable testing-laboratory for making tests of drivers. Accident trends in commercial fleets are analyzed, as well as accident aspects in various types of fleets. ...SOUND transportation and safety engineering are being successfully applied to accident control, Mr. Orr states, which involves human engineering to a greater degree than in any other phase of fleet management and operation. ...After stating accident facts and costs, Mr. Orr presents selected quotations from representative fleet operators and other authorities regarding operating practices, relations with the general public, accident control, future design of highways, driver evaluation, accident-proneness and the like, together with an illustrated description of a portable testing-laboratory for making tests of drivers.
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