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Technical Paper

Introduction to Traffic Signal Data Loggers and their Application to Accident Reconstruction

2018-04-03
2018-01-0527
Until relatively recently, investigators were limited by the absence of any recording devices within the systems used for traffic signal phasing and timing. Accident reconstruction methods have long relied on the generalized signal phasing and timings programmed for that intersection by the responsible jurisdiction, combined with the vehicle dynamics calculated for the collision sequence in conjunction with witness testimony regarding signal indications and phase changes. ...This paper also presents how to obtain, analyze, and interpret the data logger data and possible applications of such data to accident reconstruction.
Technical Paper

Motorcycle and Semi Truck Accident Reconstruction - A Case Study of Human Factors and Avoidability Analysis

1989-02-01
890733
This accident reconstruction is an actual case that went to trial in the State of Oregon. The motorcyclist (plaintiff) brought suit against the truck driver's employer (defendant). ...Talbott Associates, Inc. were retained to do an accident reconstruction, including speeds, collision analysis and avoidability analysis. At the time of trial we proviced expert testimony.
Technical Paper

The Single-Car Accident Problem

1964-01-01
640799
The single-car accident contributes nearly 42% of the highway traffic accident fatalities, or an average currently of nearly 16,000 deaths. ...A review of fatal accident statistics from 1900 through 1962 shows that the number of fatal accidents increased rapidly between 1920 and 1930 by more than 2000 per year, that a sharp break occurred around 1930, and that the average increase since then has been less than 500 per year. ...Development in steering and control has concentrated on making it possible to keep out of accidents, and recently, a great deal has been achieved in “packaging the passenger.”
Technical Paper

Car-to-Car Side Impacts: Computerized Crash Reconstruction

1975-02-01
751154
This paper describes the injury relations which result when car-to-car crashes are analyzed using a computerized accident reconstruction procedure. The results of the study are presented in the form of graphical relations between injury severity and crash severity. ...THIS PAPER EXPLORES the use of a relatively new tool for accident reconstruction - Simulation Model of Automobile Collisions (SMAC). The capability of this program to simulate a wide variety of crashes is described in detail elsewhere (1,2,3)*. ...This study is limited to the reconstruction of side impact collisions in which two passenger vehicles are involved. The need for redesigning vehicles based on an understanding of this crash condition is amply demonstrated by the fact that 28 percent of passenger car occupant fatalities and 41 percent of passenger car occupant injuries are caused by side impacts (4).
Technical Paper

A Detailed Injury Scale for Accident Investigation*

1968-02-01
680781
It differs from most investigations in that each accident was analyzed in detail. Accidents in which the cause of injury could not be accurately ascertained were eliminated. ...A program for investigating frontal force accidents has been underway for approximately 2 years at Wayne State University. It differs from most investigations in that each accident was analyzed in detail. ...Thus, a limited number of cases were investigated in detail rather than depending on statistics from a large number of accidents. It was necessary to establish a comprehensive scale for the detailed investigations because available rating scales did not provide fine enough injury increments.
Technical Paper

Accident Characteristics and Influence Parameters of Severe Motorcycle Accidents in Germany

2015-04-14
2015-01-1466
The aim of this study is to analyze the current accident situation of motorcycles in Germany with severely injured and killed riders of motorcycles with cubic capacity > 125 cm3 in Germany, to identify the characteristics in injury mechanisms and accident constellations to find countermeasures to be suggested for worldwide accident avoidance and injury reduction. ...The study was carried out on the basis of accident data of 1,493 drivers of motorcycles involved in traffic accidents in Germany. These accidents were collected by a scientific research team of GIDAS (German In-Depth Accident Study) in the area of Hannover and Dresden within the years 2000 up to 2013. ...These accidents were collected by a scientific research team of GIDAS (German In-Depth Accident Study) in the area of Hannover and Dresden within the years 2000 up to 2013.
Technical Paper

Representativeness and Weighting Methods of Real Time Accident Data in India

2013-01-09
2013-26-0022
Besides vehicle safety, infrastructure related issues and education skills can be derived out of accident data. Official statistics regarding accidents in India are available in national and state wise reports. ...More detailed information about accident causes, accident conditions and consequences are roughly obtained. There is a lack of engineering data in the available reports. ...The 2011 Report of Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Government of India states that the total accidents with injuries is estimated about 497, 686 out of which the injuries are 511, 394 and fatalities are 142, 485, an average of one fatality per 3.5 [1].
Technical Paper

Residual Injury Situation and Accident Characteristics of Severe Motorcycle Accidents

2019-04-02
2019-01-0638
The study included accident data from 464 motorcycle accidents collected in Hanover and Dresden between 2010 and 2015 by an academic research team in the course of the GIDAS project (German In-Depth Accident Study). ...The total number of persons severely and fatally injured in road traffic accidents has reduced considerably in recent decades. However, the number of motorcyclists involved in accidents has not reduced to the same extent, and some countries have even recorded an increase. ...However, the number of motorcyclists involved in accidents has not reduced to the same extent, and some countries have even recorded an increase.
Technical Paper

Crashes Accompanied by Fire: What Do the Accident Data Tell Us?

2006-04-03
2006-01-0790
Additionally, an examination of multiple data sources revealed that statistically significant conclusions regarding collisions accompanied by fire are not always possible because of the rarity of the event and the nature of the accident data coding, which often lacks detailed information.
Technical Paper

Techniques for the Reconstruction of Rollover Accidents Involving Sport Utility Vehicles, Light Trucks and Minivans

2000-03-06
2000-01-0851
Finally, techniques are presented which enable the speed of the vehicle at rollover to be calculated and the pre-rollover trajectory to be analyzed. Reconstruction of a number of actual rollover accidents are provided to illustrate the techniques. ...Rollover Accidents account for almost 50 percent of fatalities that occur in sport utility vehicles, pickups and minivans, such that increased attention is being paid to these types of accidents. ...Rollover Accidents account for almost 50 percent of fatalities that occur in sport utility vehicles, pickups and minivans, such that increased attention is being paid to these types of accidents. This paper discusses the common types of situations that lead to vehicle rollover of multipurpose passenger vehicles, and the mechanisms that precipitate these situations.
Technical Paper

RASSI: A Systematic Approach for On-site Crash Investigations and In-depth Accident Data Collection in India

2013-01-09
2013-26-0031
After three years of pilot studies, a methodology, called Road Accident Sampling System - India (RASSI), has been developed for conducting on-site crash investigations and collecting in-depth accident data on road accidents in India. The processes developed under RASSI to investigate onsite crashes and collect quality accident data suitable for detailed analysis are described. ...The possible ways to make calculations and accident reconstructions from the collected data are described, and the benefit of such comprehensive in-depth accident data collection is shown, along with examples correlating technical parameters with injury outcome. ...India's growing trend of serious road accidents has created an urgent need to understand the primary factors involved in these crashes and in the resulting severe injuries and fatalities.
Technical Paper

Traumatopsy: A Unique Crash Reconstruction Method for Determining Injury Patterns in Fatal Motor Vehicle Crashes

2008-04-14
2008-01-0519
PMCT in conjunction with accident reconstruction allows researchers to more easily establish injury patterns that are a direct result of the interaction of the subject and the vehicle. ...METHODS: We performed whole body PMCT, autopsy and complete crash reconstruction on 3 subjects fatally injured in MVC in a single county in Michigan. All injuries detected by either PMCT or autopsy were coded using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS).
Technical Paper

Characteristics and Casualty Analysis of Two- Wheeler Accidents in China, Data Source: The China In-Depth Accident Study (CIDAS)

2018-04-03
2018-01-1052
The objective of this paper is to study the characteristics and analyze the causes of two-wheeler accidents in China using the CIDAS (China In-Depth Accident Study) Database. 2012 cases of two-wheeler accidents with riders injured or dead were collected from the CIDAS Database from 5 cities (Changchun, Beijing, Weihai, Ningbo and Foshan) in China over a period of 5 years (2011.07-2016.06). ...Several key parameters such as accident characteristics, accident scenarios (containing collision point distribution, accident type, clock direction distribution and head WAD distribution) were analyzed using measurement and mathematical statistical methods. ...Results show that the motorcycle accident was the most frequent two-wheeler accident type in China, which accounted for 52.7% of the total two-wheeler accidents.
Technical Paper

Typical Pedestrian Accident Scenarios in China and Crash Severity Mitigation by Autonomous Emergency Braking Systems

2015-04-14
2015-01-1464
The objective of this work was to describe typical accident scenarios for pedestrian accidents in China. In-depth accident analysis was conducted to support development of test procedures for assessing Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems. ...The China In-depth Accident Study (CIDAS) database was searched from 2011 to 2014 for pedestrian accidents. A total of 358 pedestrian accidents were collected from the on-site in-depth investigation in the first phase of CIDAS project (2011-2014). ...A total of 358 pedestrian accidents were collected from the on-site in-depth investigation in the first phase of CIDAS project (2011-2014).
Technical Paper

Aviation Accident Causal Analysis

1999-04-13
1999-01-1432
This paper presents a top-down methodology for causal analysis of fatal aviation accidents. The methodology incorporates a three tiered hierarchical approach to analyze accident causes and factors. ...These include looking at the big picture or “profile” of accident categories, followed by a detailed analysis that “fingerprints” each profile. Finally, an in-depth analysis is performed for each fingerprint which produces a “DNA” sequence breakdown for each accident category. ...Finally, an in-depth analysis is performed for each fingerprint which produces a “DNA” sequence breakdown for each accident category. The paper includes analysis results of National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accidents from 1990-1996.
Technical Paper

Fatal Accident Reporting System

1981-02-01
810322
The purpose of this paper is to describe the Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS), a data system containing information on all fatal accidents that occur in the U.S.
Technical Paper

Accident Research and Frontal Testing

1985-01-01
856058
In classifying accidents, more attention must be given to the different sequences in car-to-car and single-car accidents and to damage and strain criteria. From the accident researcher's point of view, the following recommendations are outlined: a) it is not sufficient to describe the real-life frontal accident by one standardized test; b) the frontal fixed barrier test should be used as the main reference test; c) an angled crash or an offset test is necessary, which has to be carried out in such a way to simulate the problem of one-sided intrusion of the passenger compartment; and d) in a third test configuration, a supplementary car-to-movable-barrier test is desirable ...In classifying accidents, more attention must be given to the different sequences in car-to-car and single-car accidents and to damage and strain criteria. ...From the accident researcher's point of view, the following recommendations are outlined: a) it is not sufficient to describe the real-life frontal accident by one standardized test; b) the frontal fixed barrier test should be used as the main reference test; c) an angled crash or an offset test is necessary, which has to be carried out in such a way to simulate the problem of one-sided intrusion of the passenger compartment; and d) in a third test configuration, a supplementary car-to-movable-barrier test is desirable
Technical Paper

Severe Coach Accident Survey

1985-01-01
856103
Data about severe coach accidents are still limited. More knowledge in this field is required to define safety priorities that designers and manufactures need to consider in future vehicles. ...Despite the good safety level of coaches, some spectacular accidents nevertheless occur causing serious injuries and death to the users, and these are often brought to the public's attention by the media. ...This survey is based on all the fatal coach accidents that occurred in France between 1978 and 1984. The paper describes the causes and accident configurations and analyzes the injury mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Project Y.A.M. (Yaw Analysis Methodology) Vehicle Testing and Findings - Victoria Police, Accident Investigation Section

1997-02-24
970955
A vehicle oversteered or cornering at excessive speed results in the tyres of the vehicle loosing traction with the road surface. As a result tyre yaw marks may be left on the road surface. Yaw marks are common at fatal collision sites. Various methods are reported to estimate the speed of the vehicle that leaves yaw marks on a road surface. The difference in each method is how to determine the radius and whether the peak or average friction is used. Tests were conducted with four different vehicles. Variations in tyre pressures, and driver inputs of acceleration, braking and steering over-correction were investigated. Yawing followed by emergency braking with and without ABS was further studied. The radar speed of the vehicle for each test was compared with speed estimates from the yaw marks.
Technical Paper

Accident Data Collection Methodology for Building a Traffic Accident Database for Tamil Nadu (India)

2009-01-21
2009-26-0008
The foundation for data collection activities is a road traffic accident notification network that enables access to accident details, crashed vehicles, and injury reports in a timely manner. ...India is facing the challenge of reducing road accident fatalities, which claim close to 100,000 lives every year. Road infrastructure is slowly improving, but the number of vehicles on the road is rising fast and so is the number of road accidents, which continue to increase year after year. ...Road infrastructure is slowly improving, but the number of vehicles on the road is rising fast and so is the number of road accidents, which continue to increase year after year. The data collected by law enforcement agencies is not detailed enough to identify causes and develop solutions.
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