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Technical Paper

Real-time Crash Detection and Its Application in Incident Reporting and Accident Reconstruction

2017-03-28
2017-01-1419
The crash location around the perimeter of the vehicle, the direction of the crash force, and the severity of the crashes are all determined in real-time based on on-board sensor measurements which has further application in accident reconstruction. All of this information will be integrated to a feature called “Incident Report”, which enable reporting of minor accidents to the relevant entities such as insurance agencies, fleet managements, etc. ...All of this information will be integrated to a feature called “Incident Report”, which enable reporting of minor accidents to the relevant entities such as insurance agencies, fleet managements, etc. The developed algorithms are being pursued for implementation in a wireless on-board-diagnostic (OBD) dongle using the hardware specific Java format.
Technical Paper

IDENTIFICATION OF HEAD INJURY MECHANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH RECONSTRUCTION OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS.

1999-09-23
1999-13-0002
The analyses of real-life accidents involving airbag deployments show that additional injuries occur in accidents of relatively slight severity. ...The purpose of this study is to present the accident reconstruction methodology so as to provide an estimate of the head loads which are associated with the injuries sustained by the victim. ...Simulations of head loads with the conditions extracted from the accident reconstruction are the next stage for the identification of head injury mechanisms.
Technical Paper

ACCIDENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (AIS)

2009-12-13
2009-28-0029
Suppose a vehicle crashes down due to an accident, an immediate information in the form of message regarding the accident bearing the vehicle number and the area name in which the accident has occurred will be sent to the rescue service centre. ...As it is rightly said by the adage “NECESSITY IS THE MOTHER OF INVENTION”, it has become an obligation for the innovators to design some novel concepts for the sake of safety as well. Accidents have become a major havoc to the lives of mankind. Luxury has steered people to some unknown block outs which has taken out lives together. ...Our innovation deals in providing the necessary service in case of accidents even in isolated rural areas. Now-a-days air bags have been provided only in branded vehicles but our system is adaptable to all heavy vehicles.
Technical Paper

Accident Statistical Distributions from NASS CDS

2010-04-12
2010-01-0139
The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated, comprehensive resource to reference when looking for commonly sought-after accident statistics. Charts include accident distributions by Delta-V and impact direction with corresponding injury severity rates. ...The National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) Crashworthiness Data System (CDS) contains a wealth of field accident data. As the size of the database continues to grow, the statistical significance of the data increases and trends can be observed.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Accident Parameters in a Numerical Fleet for Assessing Compatibility

2005-04-11
2005-01-0707
Several parameter sweeps over relevant accident and design parameters were performed using the multi-body models. The accident parameters included vehicle type, vehicle speed and frontal overlap. ...The aim is to develop strategies for evaluation of front-end structures minimizing the total harm in car-to-car crashes on a fleet-wide basis in different accident scenarios. For these studies multi-body models were constructed from existing finite element models.
Technical Paper

Front Airbag Deployment Rates in Real-World Car Accidents in Japan and Implications for Activation of Accident Emergency Calling System

2018-11-12
2018-22-0011
Accident emergency calling systems (AECSs) are signaled by the deployment of airbags, which causes them to automatically emit information providing the location of the accident site to a public service answering party (PSAP). In some real-world accidents, airbags have failed to deploy. ...Accident emergency calling systems (AECSs) are signaled by the deployment of airbags, which causes them to automatically emit information providing the location of the accident site to a public service answering party (PSAP). ...This study clarifies the factors that influence the nondeployment of front airbags in vehicle-vehicle collisions, investigating nondeployment of the driver-side front airbags in sedans and light passenger cars (LPCs) from Japanese accident data. The component rates of deployment for front airbags tend to be higher than those of nondeployment at higher values of pseudo-ΔV in vehicle-vehicle frontal impacts.
Technical Paper

“EFFECT OF DRIVER AIRBAG VENT HOLE SIZES IN THE PERFORMANCE OF THE AIRBAG AND FORCES OCCURRING ON THE DRIVER BODY DUE TO THE AIRBAG DEPLOYMENT IN CASE OF ACCIDENT

2019-11-21
2019-28-2416
Airbags are very important passive safety component used in vehicle for the safety of the driver during the accident. Airbags are provided with the vent hole for the immediate discharge of the gases which fills the airbag during deployment in case of any accident. ...Airbags are provided with the vent hole for the immediate discharge of the gases which fills the airbag during deployment in case of any accident. Size of the airbag vent hole plays a very important role for the performance of airbag in reducing the driver Injury.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Evaluating Airbag Control Unit Performance

2005-01-19
2005-26-072
This question was based on the pictures of the damaged cars and results of accident reconstruction. In the past, sometimes the change of velocity of the car in a crash was directly determined on the basis of damage of the car. ...The quality of accident analysis and reconstruction has a significant affect on the interpretation of accident event and it’s consequences. ...The fundamental and comprehensive over view of complex air bag technology was explained to enhance the quality of accident reconstruction to avoid the misguided expectations of consumer.
Technical Paper

Effectiveness of Side-Airbags for Front Struckside Belted Car Occupants in Lateral Impact Conditions - An In-Depth-Analysis by GIDAS1

2007-04-16
2007-01-1157
An analysis of real world accidents was carried out by ARU-MUH (Accident Research Unit - Medical University Hannover). The data were collected based on the spot documentation in time after an accident event. ...The data were collected based on the spot documentation in time after an accident event. Based on the accident sampling process, the results of this study are representative for the German traffic accident situation. ...Accident documentations on GIDAS (German In-Depth-Accident Study) from 1999 to 2005 are used for this study dealing with the effectiveness of the side airbag protection for car occupants.
Journal Article

Airbag Deployment Thresholds from Analysis of the NASS EDR Database

2014-04-01
2014-01-0496
These data have been analyzed for use in accident reconstruction for vehicles which may or may not be supported by a publicly available module download tool. ...Accident reconstructionists and others use airbag non-deployment thresholds as an indicator of severity in minor- to moderate-severity accidents. ...Accident reconstructionists and others use airbag non-deployment thresholds as an indicator of severity in minor- to moderate-severity accidents. The National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) has accessed and recorded the data stored in the airbag control modules of nearly 6,300 vehicles since 2000 and has made these data publicly available.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Occupant Simulation Through the Coupling of PC-Crash and MADYMO

1999-03-01
1999-01-0444
A new interface has been developed between MADYMO® and PC-Crash so that, after the reconstruction of an accident, only a few additional parameters regarding restraint system, seat and occupant must be defined. ...During recent years the accident simulation program PC-Crash was developed. This software simulates vehicle movement before, during and after the impact, using 3D vehicle and scene models. ...When reconstructing car accidents, quite often questions arise regarding occupant movement and loading. Especially important is the influence of different types of restraint systems on the occupant.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Simulation and Sensor Development for Occupant Protection in Rollover Accidents

2000-11-01
2000-01-C038
In this paper, we will touch upon the concept of the "safety state diagram,' which encompasses a host of variables or "zones' such as; vehicle motion, occupant-state and accident to post accident states. Highlights include concepts such as pre-crash sensing, anticipatory crash sensing, X-by-wire, advanced safety interiors, and smart safety systems. ...., were developed for to help save lives and minimize injuries in accidents. Over the years, preventive measures such as improving visibility, headlights, windshield wipers, tire traction etc., were deployed to help reduce the probability of getting into an accident. ...., were deployed to help reduce the probability of getting into an accident. With tremendous new research and improvements in electronics, we are at the stage of helping to actively avoid accidents in certain situations as well as providing increased protection to vehicle occupants and pedestrians.
Technical Paper

The Efficacy of Event Data Recorders in Pedestrian-Related Accidents

2004-03-08
2004-01-1195
These systems have become a resource to the accident reconstructionist in the analysis of collisions involving data recorder equipped vehicles, as typically the data can be downloaded via the Vetronix Crash Data Retrieval (CDR) System. ...The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of the CDR System in pedestrian accidents. A series of impacts using a pedestrian dummy and SDM equipped vehicles were performed.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Reconstructions of Real World Frontal Crash Configurations Using the Hybrid III and THOR Dummies and PMHS

2002-11-11
2002-22-0002
Load-limiting belt restraints have been present in French cars since 1995. An accident study showed the greater effectiveness in thorax injury prevention using a 4 kN load limiter belt with an airbag than using a 6 kN load limiter belt without airbag. ...The sled configuration and the deceleration law correspond to those observed in the accident study. Restraint conditions evaluated are the 6 kN load-limiting belt and the 4 kN load-limiting belt with an airbag. ...The injury results of the PMHS tests showed the same tendency as the accident study. Some of the criteria proposed in the literature did not show a better protection of the 4 kN load limiter belt with airbag restraint, in particular thoracic deflection maxima for both dummies.
Technical Paper

Probability of Frontal Airbag Deployment in Bumper-Bumper and Underride Collisions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0620
Airbag deployment thresholds can be a useful metric of collision severity in accident reconstruction applications. The National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) has provided a publicly-available database of real-world motor vehicle collisions, including more than 10,000 event data recorder (EDR) reports retrieved from airbag control modules.
Technical Paper

Injury Patterns Among Belted Drivers Protected by Air Bags in 30 to 35 mph Crashes

1999-03-01
1999-01-1062
The multi-disciplinary research team includes expertise in crash investigation, crash reconstruction, computer graphics, biomechanics of injuries, crash data analysis, emergency trauma care, and all of the medical specialties associated with the Ryder Trauma Center at Jackson Memorial Hospital. ...These patterns form the basis for hypotheses which can be explored further by analysis of mass accident data, crash tests, and computer modeling. As a consequence, recommendations are provided for injury control measures.
Book

Fundamentals of Crash Sensing in Automotive Air Bag Systems

2000-01-31
Fundamentals of Crash Sensing in Automotive Air Bag Systems provides a sound introduction for engineers designing air bag systems, accident reconstructionists, litigation professionals, managers, government employees, and anyone involved with automotive safety.
Technical Paper

Nonfatal Air Bag Deployments Involving Child Passengers

1997-11-12
973297
Twelve surviving children aged 12 and younger who experienced passenger air bag deployments were identified from hospital emergency department records and police accident reports. Data from crash reconstructions and medical records were analyzed to determine mechanisms responsible for each injury sustained.
Technical Paper

The Accuracy and Sensitivity of Event Data Recorders in Low-Speed Collisions

2002-03-04
2002-01-0679
Collision data stored in the airbag sensing and diagnostic module (SDM) of 1996 and newer GM vehicles have become available to accident investigators through the Vetronix Crash Data Retrieval system. In this study, two experiments were performed to investigate the accuracy and sensitivity of the speed change reported by the SDM in low-speed crashes. ...A threshold trigger model that ignored part of the collision pulse explained the difference between the actual and SDM-reported speed change in the vehicle tests. Accident investigators who use SDM collision data to determine the severity of low-speed collisions must account for the error present in the SDM-reported speed change.
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