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Standard

Ethics for Accident Investigation and Reconstruction

2011-02-18
CURRENT
J2314_201102
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to promote the highest professional and personal conduct of practitioners in the fields of accident investigation and reconstruction. It encourages the continuous application of high ethical principles to one’s own endeavors. ...It also encourages the application of these same principles to others associated with accident investigation and reconstruction.
Technical Paper

On the Concept of Inter-Vehicle Friction and Its Application in Automobile Accident Reconstruction

2007-04-16
2007-01-0744
Occasionally, an accident reconstruction analyst is confronted with the task of reconstructing an accident with configurations that do not lend themselves to straightforward analytical methods. ...The analyst may often turn to accident reconstruction software such as the various versions of SMAC and some impulse-momentum approaches like PC-Crash and VCRware. ...This can lead to the modification of the inter-vehicle friction value to tune the simulation result; typically in an effort to force the final rest positions of the collision partners to match documented accident scene evidence. In this paper, the concept and application of the inter-vehicle friction coefficient is examined.
Technical Paper

Predicting Weight Distribution from Occupant Load Using a Monte Carlo Method

2012-09-24
2012-01-1925
Actual occupant weight distributions versus certified weight per occupant seat causes a potential conflict between a vehicle's in-use weight versus its certified GVWR. A Monte Carlo method using a midsized bus example was conducted to determine the statistical probability that adult passengers and rated cargo would result in weight distributions that exceeded tire load capability, Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR), or GVWR.
Journal Article

Efficient Random Vibration Analysis Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation

2012-04-16
2012-01-0067
Reliability assessment of dynamic systems with low failure probability can be very expensive. This paper presents and demonstrates a method that uses the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to sample from an optimal probability density function (PDF) of the random variables. This function is the true PDF truncated over the failure region. For a system subjected to time varying excitation, Shinozuka's method is employed to generate time histories of the excitation. Random values of the frequencies and the phase angles of the excitation are drawn from the optimal PDF. It is shown that running the subset simulation by the proposed approach, which uses Shinozuka's method, is more efficient than the original subset simulation. The main reasons are that the approach involves only 10 to 20 random variables, and it takes advantage of the symmetry of the expression of the displacement as a function of the inputs. The paper demonstrates the method on two examples.
Technical Paper

Friction Applications in Accident Reconstruction

1983-02-01
830612
The determination of appropriate friction coefficient values is an important aspect of accident reconstruction. Tire-roadway friction values are highly dependent on a variety of physical factors. ...This paper presents a technical review of basic concepts and principles of friction as they apply to accident reconstruction and automobile safety. A brief review of test measurement methods is also presented, together with simple methods of friction measurement to obtain more precise values in many situations. ...Factors such as tire design, side force limitations, road surface wetness, vehicle speed, and load shifting require understanding if useful reconstruction calculations are to be made. Tabulated experimental friction coefficient data are available, and may be improved upon in many situations by simple testing procedures.
Technical Paper

Crush Energy in Accident Reconstruction

1986-02-24
860371
Vehicle accident reconstruction methods based on deformation energy are argued to be an increasingly valuable tool to the accident reconstructionist, provided reliable data, reasonable analysis techniques, and sound engineering judgement accompany their use. ...Vehicle accident reconstruction methods based on deformation energy are argued to be an increasingly valuable tool to the accident reconstructionist, provided reliable data, reasonable analysis techniques, and sound engineering judgement accompany their use. ...It is concluded that the deformation energy for an accident vehicle can be estimated using the CRASH model provided that test data specific to the accident vehicle is utilized.
Technical Paper

TRAFFIC SAFETY OF HEAVY VEHICLES, (ACCIDENT ANALYSIS, ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION)

2001-06-04
2001-06-0244
This paper provides an overview of safety situations of commercial vehicles on the basis of databank concerning more than 4500 accidents. Different safety points of view are analysed and evaluated. A special accident reconstruction program (CARAT) is interpreted which is able to solve the traffic and accident questions in practical approach. ...A special accident reconstruction program (CARAT) is interpreted which is able to solve the traffic and accident questions in practical approach. It summarises conclusions and proposals on road safety of heavy vehicles in Europe.
Technical Paper

Photographic Documentation and Analysis in Vehicle Accident Reconstruction

1991-02-01
910128
The use of the camera has become increasingly important in vehicle accident reconstruction work. A number of practical techniques have been developed which go beyond simply documenting what is seen at a particular time. ...This paper briefly reviews photographic methods currently in use in accident reconstruction and presents several techniques which have been developed to expand the use of the camera. ...Photographs taken from actual accident cases are used to illustrate these new techniques.
Technical Paper

Night Visibility Video for Accident Reconstruction

1996-02-01
960895
The characteristics, use and adaptability cf the system for a variety of accident reconstruction activities is described....A new low light video recording system is described which can be used to document visibility conditions at nighttime accident scenes. The system includes a means for calibrating the recording and playback equipment for the prevailing illumination conditions while on location at an accident scene. ...The system includes a means for calibrating the recording and playback equipment for the prevailing illumination conditions while on location at an accident scene. Use of a hand-held grey scale chart facilitates calibration of the equipment and provides a visual check during playback.
Technical Paper

Computer-Aided Accident Reconstruction: Its Role in Court

1991-02-01
910370
The primary purpose of this paper is to sort out the several different categories of computer applications which are frequently lumped together as “accident reconstruction software,” and then to distinguish on the basis of these categories the arguments regarding the courtroom use of data and images generated by this software. ...The paper also contains an attempt-based on current judicial scrutiny of scientific evidence-to predict the ultimate consensus which will emerge regarding the evidentiary use of computer-aided accident reconstruction results. Finally, there is a brief review of the present judicial acceptance of such results among the various U.S. and Canadian jurisdictions. ...As the computer software which has lightened and enlightened the work of the accident reconstructionist over the past several years moves into the courtroom, a debate has sprung up concerning the appropriateness of this latest form of scientific evidence.
Technical Paper

Accident Investigation and Reconstruction Mapping with Aerial Photography

1996-02-01
960894
A system has been developed for investigating and reconstructing vehicular accidents using close-range aerial photography. Accident Investigation and Reconstruction Mapping with Aerial Photography, henceforth referred to as AIRMAP, utilizes a tethered blimp and suspended camera in a close-range aerial survey technique. ...Computer-generated graphics of physical evidence, such as vehicles, tire marks, and pedestrians, can be superimposed over the image to produce a plan view photographic map of the accident scene easily understood by a non-technical audience.
Technical Paper

Accident Reconstruction of Rollovers - A Methodology

2000-03-06
2000-01-0853
The fundamentals of accident reconstruction do still apply, however, and much valuable and insightful test data is available. ...This paper will describe a practical methodology and protocol to assist reconstructionists in reconstructing both on-road and off-road rollover accidents. It will point to previously published rollover studies relevant to the reconstructionist; present a methodology and protocol for documenting and analyzing field data, most specifically accident vehicle damage; and, lastly, it will review various presentation techniques useful for explanation and validation of the reconstructionist ’s conclusions. ...It will point to previously published rollover studies relevant to the reconstructionist; present a methodology and protocol for documenting and analyzing field data, most specifically accident vehicle damage; and, lastly, it will review various presentation techniques useful for explanation and validation of the reconstructionist ’s conclusions.
Technical Paper

Computers in Motor Vehicle Accident Reconstruction: A Review

1987-10-01
871995
A review of the literature and reference to actual case accidents, shows that use of these tools in “actual” cases must be done with utmost caution. Many of the variables present in actual accidents are shown to be difficult, or impossible, for current computer simulations to address. ...Many of the variables present in actual accidents are shown to be difficult, or impossible, for current computer simulations to address.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Measurement Uncertainty on the Reconstruction of Various Vehicular Collisions

2004-03-08
2004-01-1220
This paper continues a previous study of the effects of uncertainty of measurement upon accident reconstruction. The task is to identify, given the many inevitable errors of observation, the few of greatest import, so that these errors may be reduced, and to document the accuracy of the associated reconstruction. ...In that paper, Finite Difference Analysis (FDA) was reviewed and with the aid of the new data was applied to automotive accident reconstruction. FDA includes identification of “the vital few among the trivial many” (a Pareto analysis) as a guide to the benefits of investigative efforts both past and pending. ...The task is to identify, given the many inevitable errors of observation, the few of greatest import, so that these errors may be reduced, and to document the accuracy of the associated reconstruction. Until recently, it was not for lack of method that such studies could not be properly performed, but for lack of good data on uncertainty of measurement.
Technical Paper

Three Dimensional Computerized Photogrammetry and its Application to Accident Reconstruction

1989-02-01
890739
This paper contains a brief history of the science of photogrammetry followed by the general equations governing the three-dimensional photogrammetric process and it's application to accident reconstruction. Several case studies are presented to illustrate the approach using two photographs. ...In addition to these case histories, the applicability of the three-dimensional process to numerous other accident reconstruction problems is be discussed.
Technical Paper

An Overview of the Evolution of Computer Assisted Motor Vehicle Accident Reconstruction

1987-10-01
871991
In addition, a brief computer development history is discussed to demonstrate how the evolution of computer assisted vehicle accident reconstruction becomes feasible for a reconstructionist. Possible future research in computer reconstruction is also discussed. ...This paper presents an overview of the evolution of computer simulations in vehicle collision and occupant kinematic reconstructions. The basic principles behind these simulations, the origin of these programs and the evolution of these programs from a basic analytical mathematical model to a sophisticated computer program are discussed. ...Possible future research in computer reconstruction is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Crush Energy and Planar Impact Mechanics for Accident Reconstruction

1998-02-23
980025
The algorithm used in the third version of the Calspan Reconstruction of Accident Speeds on the Highway (CRASH3) and planar impact mechanics are both used to calculate energy loss and velocity changes of vehicle collisions. ...A method is proposed that exploits the features of both methods for vehicle accident reconstructions.
Technical Paper

PC Based Accident Reconstruction Animation Using Autodesk 3D Studio

1992-02-01
920756
For sometime, accident reconstruction animation has been limited to graphic workstations running expensive animation software. ...This paper discusses how accident reconstruction animation is produced using a personal computer and Autodesk's 3D Studio. ...An overview of the 3D Studio software package is given, and the application of 3D Studio for accident reconstruction animation is described. Examples are given of the generation of three dimensional geometries, including accident sites and the vehicles involved.
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