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Technical Paper

Friction Applications in Accident Reconstruction

1983-02-01
830612
The determination of appropriate friction coefficient values is an important aspect of accident reconstruction. Tire-roadway friction values are highly dependent on a variety of physical factors. ...This paper presents a technical review of basic concepts and principles of friction as they apply to accident reconstruction and automobile safety. A brief review of test measurement methods is also presented, together with simple methods of friction measurement to obtain more precise values in many situations. ...Factors such as tire design, side force limitations, road surface wetness, vehicle speed, and load shifting require understanding if useful reconstruction calculations are to be made. Tabulated experimental friction coefficient data are available, and may be improved upon in many situations by simple testing procedures.
Technical Paper

Crush Energy in Accident Reconstruction

1986-02-24
860371
Vehicle accident reconstruction methods based on deformation energy are argued to be an increasingly valuable tool to the accident reconstructionist, provided reliable data, reasonable analysis techniques, and sound engineering judgement accompany their use. ...Vehicle accident reconstruction methods based on deformation energy are argued to be an increasingly valuable tool to the accident reconstructionist, provided reliable data, reasonable analysis techniques, and sound engineering judgement accompany their use. ...It is concluded that the deformation energy for an accident vehicle can be estimated using the CRASH model provided that test data specific to the accident vehicle is utilized.
Technical Paper

TRAFFIC SAFETY OF HEAVY VEHICLES, (ACCIDENT ANALYSIS, ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION)

2001-06-04
2001-06-0244
This paper provides an overview of safety situations of commercial vehicles on the basis of databank concerning more than 4500 accidents. Different safety points of view are analysed and evaluated. A special accident reconstruction program (CARAT) is interpreted which is able to solve the traffic and accident questions in practical approach. ...A special accident reconstruction program (CARAT) is interpreted which is able to solve the traffic and accident questions in practical approach. It summarises conclusions and proposals on road safety of heavy vehicles in Europe.
Technical Paper

Computer-Aided Accident Reconstruction: Its Role in Court

1991-02-01
910370
The primary purpose of this paper is to sort out the several different categories of computer applications which are frequently lumped together as “accident reconstruction software,” and then to distinguish on the basis of these categories the arguments regarding the courtroom use of data and images generated by this software. ...The paper also contains an attempt-based on current judicial scrutiny of scientific evidence-to predict the ultimate consensus which will emerge regarding the evidentiary use of computer-aided accident reconstruction results. Finally, there is a brief review of the present judicial acceptance of such results among the various U.S. and Canadian jurisdictions. ...As the computer software which has lightened and enlightened the work of the accident reconstructionist over the past several years moves into the courtroom, a debate has sprung up concerning the appropriateness of this latest form of scientific evidence.
Technical Paper

Accident Reconstruction of Rollovers - A Methodology

2000-03-06
2000-01-0853
The fundamentals of accident reconstruction do still apply, however, and much valuable and insightful test data is available. ...This paper will describe a practical methodology and protocol to assist reconstructionists in reconstructing both on-road and off-road rollover accidents. It will point to previously published rollover studies relevant to the reconstructionist; present a methodology and protocol for documenting and analyzing field data, most specifically accident vehicle damage; and, lastly, it will review various presentation techniques useful for explanation and validation of the reconstructionist ’s conclusions. ...It will point to previously published rollover studies relevant to the reconstructionist; present a methodology and protocol for documenting and analyzing field data, most specifically accident vehicle damage; and, lastly, it will review various presentation techniques useful for explanation and validation of the reconstructionist ’s conclusions.
Technical Paper

Computers in Motor Vehicle Accident Reconstruction: A Review

1987-10-01
871995
A review of the literature and reference to actual case accidents, shows that use of these tools in “actual” cases must be done with utmost caution. Many of the variables present in actual accidents are shown to be difficult, or impossible, for current computer simulations to address. ...Many of the variables present in actual accidents are shown to be difficult, or impossible, for current computer simulations to address.
Technical Paper

Three Dimensional Computerized Photogrammetry and its Application to Accident Reconstruction

1989-02-01
890739
This paper contains a brief history of the science of photogrammetry followed by the general equations governing the three-dimensional photogrammetric process and it's application to accident reconstruction. Several case studies are presented to illustrate the approach using two photographs. ...In addition to these case histories, the applicability of the three-dimensional process to numerous other accident reconstruction problems is be discussed.
Technical Paper

An Overview of the Evolution of Computer Assisted Motor Vehicle Accident Reconstruction

1987-10-01
871991
In addition, a brief computer development history is discussed to demonstrate how the evolution of computer assisted vehicle accident reconstruction becomes feasible for a reconstructionist. Possible future research in computer reconstruction is also discussed. ...This paper presents an overview of the evolution of computer simulations in vehicle collision and occupant kinematic reconstructions. The basic principles behind these simulations, the origin of these programs and the evolution of these programs from a basic analytical mathematical model to a sophisticated computer program are discussed. ...Possible future research in computer reconstruction is also discussed.
Technical Paper

PC Based Accident Reconstruction Animation Using Autodesk 3D Studio

1992-02-01
920756
For sometime, accident reconstruction animation has been limited to graphic workstations running expensive animation software. ...This paper discusses how accident reconstruction animation is produced using a personal computer and Autodesk's 3D Studio. ...An overview of the 3D Studio software package is given, and the application of 3D Studio for accident reconstruction animation is described. Examples are given of the generation of three dimensional geometries, including accident sites and the vehicles involved.
Technical Paper

State-of-the-Art-Motor Vehicle Accident Studies

1970-02-01
700437
The studies referenced deal with mass statistics, the in-depth clinical analysis of selected accidents or accident factors, or the application of a combination of both. These studies are directed toward: epidemiology and causes of accidents, injury patterns attributable to given components of the interior (or exterior), and component failures contributing to the accident or injuries. ...The basic objectives of the paper are to trace the history of motor vehicle accident studies, assess the present state-of-the-art, and discuss the problems that exist. The emphasis is on the method of collection and techniques for analysis of accident and resultant injury data. ...The emphasis is on the method of collection and techniques for analysis of accident and resultant injury data. The studies referenced deal with mass statistics, the in-depth clinical analysis of selected accidents or accident factors, or the application of a combination of both.
Technical Paper

The Single-Car Accident Problem

1964-01-01
640799
The single-car accident contributes nearly 42% of the highway traffic accident fatalities, or an average currently of nearly 16,000 deaths. ...A review of fatal accident statistics from 1900 through 1962 shows that the number of fatal accidents increased rapidly between 1920 and 1930 by more than 2000 per year, that a sharp break occurred around 1930, and that the average increase since then has been less than 500 per year. ...Development in steering and control has concentrated on making it possible to keep out of accidents, and recently, a great deal has been achieved in “packaging the passenger.”
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Review of Pedestrian Impact Reconstruction

1987-02-01
870605
This paper presents a review on pedestrian impact reconstruction methodology and offers a comprehensive review of the literature. Several types of analyses are discussed which can be used to reconstruct the accident scenario using the facts collected from the scene. ...Several types of analyses are discussed which can be used to reconstruct the accident scenario using the facts collected from the scene. Inclusive in this review is the utilization of skid mark analysis, debris analysis, injury/damage match-up, trajectory analysis, nighttime visibility, and alcohol effects. ...The pedestrian impact reconstruction methodology is illustrated with a real world case example to point out different observations which can provide insight into the pedestrian/vehicle collision reconstruction approach.
Technical Paper

Overview on Use of In-Depth Accident Data

1987-02-01
870073
While in-depth accident data do provide the desired level of detailed information, their use are limited by such factors as high costs associated with data collection, resulting in small sample sizes and lack of representativeness, and difficulty and expenses associated with reconstructing the accidents. This paper provides an overview on how in-depth accident data can be used for assessing issues related to highway safety, citing examples from previous and ongoing studies. ...Accident data play an important role in the identification and evaluation of issues relating to highway safety. ...In-depth accident data are collected by highly-trained investigators and contain the detail needed to address complex safety issues.
Technical Paper

The Appropriate Use of “Delta-V” in Describing Accident Severity

1999-03-01
1999-01-1295
Examples of the use of Delta-V in the literature and in field accident reconstruction cases are discussed along with pointing out where errors can and do occur. ...The term “Delta-V” has become widely used as a descriptor of accident severity for automotive crash investigations and safety research, and yet, the term remains poorly defined and vaguely used in too many situations.
Technical Paper

Accurate Flight Parameter Reconstruction from ATC Radar Data – A New Approach

1999-10-19
1999-01-5605
Previous work on this problem has used a rectilinear approach to the calculations involved in the flight parameter reconstruction. The rectilinear approach gives excellent results for relatively straight flight; however, it routinely underestimates the airspeed and the bank angle when the airplane is maneuvering. ...In the present study, the authors present a curvilinear approach to flight parameter reconstruction that addresses this shortcoming. The analysis presented shows that the curvilinear approach is a far superior tool than the rectilinear approach for the reconstruction of maneuvering flight including steep turns and high-speed spirals. ...The analysis presented shows that the curvilinear approach is a far superior tool than the rectilinear approach for the reconstruction of maneuvering flight including steep turns and high-speed spirals.
Technical Paper

Brazil's Option to Join iGLAD - International Harmonized In-Depth Accident Data

2017-11-07
2017-36-0183
In fact, a consistent method for the development of strategies and measures to prevent accidents and mitigate injury severity comes from accident database analysis. Although databases such as national statistics are available for many countries for assessing accident situations, examining trends, or carrying out similar analysis; the identification of accident and injury causation and the evaluation of countermeasures require a higher level of detail. ...This paper gives an overview of the Brazilian data in the framework of the iGLAD initiative as a new field crash data set and shows its unique opportunities for road accident analysis in a global scope, which are not provided by any other accident data source and will give stronger support for efficient and consistent traffic policies. ...This paper describes the Brazilian initiative’s approach to the challenge of being aligned with iGLAD (Initiative for the Global Harmonization of Accident Data, starting as a project in 2011 and collecting data since 2007) on the delivery of its first set of accident cases from 2016.
Technical Paper

Occupant Injury in Motor Vehicle Collisions: Using Field Accident Data from Multiple Sources

2009-04-20
2009-01-0394
Review of field accident data is an important tool in understanding injuries in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). Multiple databases are available that contain information about traffic-related traumatic injuries, many of which are not commonly used in traffic injury research. ...This work discusses some databases commonly used to evaluate field accident data and introduces additional databases (primarily hospital, medical, and trauma) that include traffic-related injuries.
Technical Paper

Typical Pedestrian Accident Scenarios in China and Crash Severity Mitigation by Autonomous Emergency Braking Systems

2015-04-14
2015-01-1464
The objective of this work was to describe typical accident scenarios for pedestrian accidents in China. In-depth accident analysis was conducted to support development of test procedures for assessing Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems. ...The China In-depth Accident Study (CIDAS) database was searched from 2011 to 2014 for pedestrian accidents. A total of 358 pedestrian accidents were collected from the on-site in-depth investigation in the first phase of CIDAS project (2011-2014). ...A total of 358 pedestrian accidents were collected from the on-site in-depth investigation in the first phase of CIDAS project (2011-2014).
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