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Book

Vehicle Accident Analysis and Reconstruction Methods, Second Edition

2011-04-12
Thoroughly revised, this new edition builds on the original exploration of accident analysis, reconstruction, and vehicle design. Enhanced with new material and improved chapters on key topics, an expanded glossary of automotive terms, and a bibliography at the end of the book providing further reading suggestions make this an essential resource reference for engineers involved in litigation, forensic investigation, automotive safety, and crash reconstruction. ...Designed for the experienced practitioner, this new book aims to help reconstruction specialists with problems they may encounter in everyday analysis. The authors demonstrate how to take the physics behind accidents out of the idealized world and into practical situations. ...The authors demonstrate how to take the physics behind accidents out of the idealized world and into practical situations. Real-world examples are used to illustrate the methods, clarify important concepts, and provide practical applications to those working in the field.
Journal Article

Application of Air Brake Performance Relationships in Accident Reconstruction and Their Correlation to Real Vehicle Performance

2012-04-16
2012-01-0609
This research paper builds onto the wealth of technical information that has been published in the past by engineers such as Flick, Radlinski, and Heusser. For this paper, the pushrod force versus chamber pressure data published by Heusser are supplemented with data taken from brake chamber types not reported on by Heusser in 1991. The utility of Heusser's braking force relationships is explored and discussed. Finally, a straightforward and robust method for calculating truck braking performance, based on the brake stroke measurements and published heavy truck braking test results, is introduced and compared to full-scale vehicle test data.
Technical Paper

A Method for Estimating the Benefit of Autonomous Braking Systems Using Traffic Accident Data

2006-04-03
2006-01-0473
The results from the case study highlight frontal impact situations from real world accident data that have the greatest potential in terms of improving accident outcome. One of the first stages in the development of forward dectection driver support systems is a system to detect vehicles travelling in the same direction. ...It involves a systematic and new way of examining accident data in order to extract information concerning pre-crash situations. One problem area when implementing collision mitigation systems is being able to achieve sufficient target discrimination. ...Here, braking tends to be efficient in terms of accident mitigation; hence reducing AIS1 spinal injuries in this specific traffic incidence. The need for an increased level of object discrimination becomes obvious though, when taking all frontal impacts into account.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of the Accident Avoidance and Severity Reduction Potential of Radar Warning,Radar Actuated, and Anti-Lock Braking Systems

1977-02-01
770266
A group of 215 in-depth accident reports prepared as part of a tri-level accident causation study by a multidisciplinary team was examined to assess the benefit derived from the hypothetical application of various combinations of radar warning, radar actuated, and anti-lock braking systems. ...On one extreme, it was found that two-wheel anti-lock systems, by themselves, had relatively little accident prevention potential; only one of the 215 accidents (0.5%) would definitely have been prevented by such a system, although with less assurance there was some possibility of prevention of up to eight accidents (3.7%). ...On the other extreme, the most complex of the systems defined, comprised of a non-cooperative radar system with both actuation and warning potential, coupled with a four-wheel anti-lock system, would definitely have prevented 39 of these accidents (18.0%), with some possibility of prevention of up to 90 accidents (41.9% of those examined).
Technical Paper

Typical Pedestrian Accident Scenarios in China and Crash Severity Mitigation by Autonomous Emergency Braking Systems

2015-04-14
2015-01-1464
The objective of this work was to describe typical accident scenarios for pedestrian accidents in China. In-depth accident analysis was conducted to support development of test procedures for assessing Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems. ...The China In-depth Accident Study (CIDAS) database was searched from 2011 to 2014 for pedestrian accidents. A total of 358 pedestrian accidents were collected from the on-site in-depth investigation in the first phase of CIDAS project (2011-2014). ...A total of 358 pedestrian accidents were collected from the on-site in-depth investigation in the first phase of CIDAS project (2011-2014).
Technical Paper

Vehicular Problems as Accident Causes-an Overview of Available Information

1977-02-01
770117
This paper provides final results of an accident investigation project conducted by the Indiana University Institute for Research in Public Safety (IRPS), for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, emphasizing particularly the role of vehicular factors in causing accidents. ...This paper provides final results of an accident investigation project conducted by the Indiana University Institute for Research in Public Safety (IRPS), for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, emphasizing particularly the role of vehicular factors in causing accidents. In addition, these results are put in context with other recent studies which have provided information on the same topic. ...Data collection for the Indiana University accident causation study was confined to Monroe County, Indiana, where between 1970 and 1975, 2,258 accidents were investigated by teams of technicians using a consistent set of procedures and terminology.
Technical Paper

Collision Types and Characteristics of Bus Accidents-Their Consequences for the Bus Passengers and the Accident Opponent

1985-01-01
856078
This study covers 97 bus accidents with a collision in which occupants were injured: for the bus occupants, the risk of injury is given dependent on the accident opponent and kind of collision. For bus/car accidents, the risk to the car occupants, i.e., the passengers in the opposing vehicle, is also described. ...The majority of persons killed or seriously injured in this study met with their accident in long-distance coaches: rollover accidents are of particular significance. On the basis of this knowledge, measures are indicated that could achieve a further increase in the passive safety of buses. ...As unfavorable road conditions played an essential part in the available accident material, an investigation was carried out to ascertain whether the accident would have been influenced by the use of an antilock brake system.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Vehicle Stability Control's Effectiveness Derived from the Analysis of Traffic Accident Data Statistics

2004-10-18
2004-21-0074
We have studied the characteristics of VSC in reducing accidents by analyzing accident data statistics in Japan. The results indicate that VSC is effective in reducing single car accidents and head-on collisions with other automobiles. ...The results indicate that VSC is effective in reducing single car accidents and head-on collisions with other automobiles. In these accidents, the analysis showed that VSC may be more helpful in reducing a larger number of accidents in the higher speed range where vehicle dynamics plays a greater part. ...In these accidents, the analysis showed that VSC may be more helpful in reducing a larger number of accidents in the higher speed range where vehicle dynamics plays a greater part. It also showed that VSC may contribute to reducing accidents that result from unstable vehicle behavior.
Standard

Use of the Critical Speed Formula

2017-01-10
CURRENT
J2969_201701
The results from the critical speed formula should always, when possible, be compared to other accident reconstruction methodologies. When different accident reconstruction methods are used, the uncertainty of each method should be analyzed and presented. ...It is for use at accident sites using manual or electronic measurements. The method allows for many unique factors and the recommended procedure will permit a consistent use of the method in order to reduce errors and uncertainty in the results.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Truck Braking Accidents

1987-02-01
870504
The Findings presented in this paper are based upon the investigation and reconstruction of more than 250 commercial vehicle accidents. Practical methods yielding acceptable results in terms of speed determination and fade and temperature prediction in truck run-away accidents are presented. ...The effects of complete, partial and no-wheel lockup on accident reconstruction are discussed for straight and out-of-control motion of the vehicle, including Jack-knifing. ...Truck rollover mechanics as it applies to braking accidents is reviewed. The effects of brake system design on accident causation are briefly discussed.
Technical Paper

Fast Prediction of Disc Brake Squeal Uncertainty Based on Perturbation Concept

2018-04-03
2018-01-0677
However, as a widely used stochastic finite element method, Monte Carlo Method costs a large amount of time in calculation. It is very important to establish a fast prediction method for brake squeal uncertainty due to key parameters. ...The comparison between the results of Monte Carlo method and those of Perturbation method was done from the viewpoints of samples values, statistical values, probability density histograms and probability density curves. ...The comparison results show that the relative error of perturbation method to Monte Carlo method is less than 5%, and the calculation time is reduced to less than 5%, too. This indicates that the established uncertainty prediction method based on perturbation ideal is a satisfied object oriented brake squeal uncertainty method, which has higher precision and higher efficiency.
Journal Article

Tire Mark Analysis of a Modern Passenger Vehicle with Respect to Tire Variation, Tire Pressure and Chassis Control Systems

2009-04-20
2009-01-0100
Tire mark analysis is an important factor in accident reconstruction. A precise determination of pre- and postcrash speeds as well as longitudinal and lateral accelerations from tire marks contributes significantly to a reliable accident reconstruction. ...A precise determination of pre- and postcrash speeds as well as longitudinal and lateral accelerations from tire marks contributes significantly to a reliable accident reconstruction. Continuous advancements in tire and vehicle technology – in particular with respect to modern control systems such as anti-lock braking systems (ABS) – raises the question what role tire marks play in accident reconstruction today. ...Continuous advancements in tire and vehicle technology – in particular with respect to modern control systems such as anti-lock braking systems (ABS) – raises the question what role tire marks play in accident reconstruction today. Moreover, this accompanies the question to what extent potential interventions by vehicle control systems such as the electronic stability program (ESP®) resp. the electronic stability control (ESC) can be identified in a tire mark.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuzzy Logic ABS Control for Commercial Trucks

1995-11-01
952673
The FL controller must satisfy three goals: 1) produce superior braking distances over that of the finite state controller, specifically under low μ conditions; 2) provide superior braking under dynamically varying system conditions; and 3) provide a convenient, flexible, and tractable ABS solution which is amenable to re-development to different vehicular platforms. Via Monte Carlo simulations, the FL controller averages a 30% shorter braking distance when normalized to the absolute minimum possible braking distance.
Technical Paper

A Study in Rollover Prevention Using Anti-Rollover Braking

2000-05-01
2000-01-1642
The circumstances of the accident are reviewed, and how the accident was modeled using ADAMS. ARB is then added to the vehicle model to examine what would happen if ARB had been on the vehicle. ...One case uses the same steering as in the accident, and one case uses the same path as the accident. In both of these cases, ARB would have prevented the vehicle from rolling over. ...A single vehicle on-road rollover accident of a small van is used to examine the effectiveness of the Anti-Rollover Braking System (ARB).
Journal Article

Comparison of Heavy Truck Engine Control Unit Hard Stop Data with Higher-Resolution On-Vehicle Data

2009-04-20
2009-01-0879
These data provide useful information to accident reconstruction personnel. In past studies, these data have been analyzed and compared to higher-resolution on-vehicle data for several heavy trucks and several makes of passenger cars. ...The goal of this study was to help accident reconstruction professionals better understand engine ECU “hard stop” data currently available on most commercial vehicles.
Journal Article

Acceleration Testing and Modeling of Vehicle Kinematics Under Idle Conditions

2014-04-01
2014-01-0484
Determination of vehicle speed at the time of impact is frequently an important factor in accident reconstruction. In many cases some evidence may indicate that the brake pedal of a striking vehicle was disengaged, and the vehicle was permitted to idle forward prior to impacting the target vehicle.
Technical Paper

Braking and Cornering Effects with and without Anti-Lock Brakes

1994-03-01
940723
The results of three inquiries of relevance to accident reconstruction are given. In the first the difference between anti-lock and locked-wheel braking on a dry surface is examined, with the finding that average decelerations with anti-lock are about 12% higher.
Training / Education

Commercial Vehicle Braking Systems

2019-10-22
This course has been approved by the Accreditation Commission for Traffic Accident Reconstruction (ACTAR) for 18 Continuing Education Units (CEUs). Upon completion of this seminar, accredited reconstructionists should mail a copy of their course certificate and the $5 student CEU fee to ACTAR, PO Box 1493, North Platte, NE 69103.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Motorcycle Braking Performance and Associated Braking Marks

2012-04-16
2012-01-0610
Further, this paper examines the applicability of drag factors used in accident reconstruction, given the complexity of typical motorcycle braking systems, and the myriad of rider strategies and conditions under which emergency braking maneuvers might occur. ...This paper should also serve to assist the vehicle accident reconstructionist in complementing the existing data on motorcycle braking performance.
Technical Paper

Tire Friction During Locked Wheel Braking

2000-03-06
2000-01-1314
Accurate values of tire-roadway friction are an essential requirement for an accurate collision reconstruction. This paper presents updated tire friction data for three grades (economy, touring, and performance) of commercially-available tires under both wet and dry road conditions.
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