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Journal Article

Estimation of One-Sided Lower Tolerance Limits for a Weibull Distribution Using the Monte Carlo Pivotal Simulation Technique

2013-04-08
2013-01-0329
This paper introduces a methodology to calculate confidence bounds for a normal and Weibull distribution using Monte Carlo pivotal statistics. As an example, a ready-to-use lookup table to calculate one-sided lower confidence bounds is established and demonstrated for normal and Weibull distributions. ...Lieberman in 1958 (later modified by Link in 1985 and Wei in 2012), and has been widely used in the automotive industry because of the easy-to-use lookup tables. Monte Carlo simulation methods presented here are more accurate as they eliminate assumptions and approximations inherent in existing approaches by using random experiments.
Technical Paper

Perception/Reaction Time Values for Accident Reconstruction

1989-02-01
890732
Field literature in testing and experimentation on general human perception and reaction times, was reviewed to better address questions on the parameters of driving performance. Brake reaction time studies and driver visual search studies were reviewed with attendant material on the effects of aging, intoxication and fatigue. A short examination is made on the degree of increase in “surprise intrusion” event upper values from simple human basic reaction time testing to a real-time pedestrian crossing event in real-world urban driving. These upper range values began at 0.78 second in the laboratory environment and became 2.50 seconds on an urban street in real-time.
Technical Paper

Random Fatigue Load History Reconstruction

1994-03-01
940247
A concise method for modeling nonstationary fatigue loading histories is presented. The mininum number of model parameters is achieved by fitting the variations in mean and variance by a truncated Fourier series. An autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model is used to describe the stationary component. Justification of the method is made by comparing fatigue relevant parameters obtained when subjected to the original and reconstructed histories. In spite of a relatively small number of parameters required, the model is shown to give good results that fall within the bounds predicted by the orginal history.
Technical Paper

The Role of Steering and Suspension Degradations and Failures in Accident Causation

1974-02-01
740150
Despite inherent difficulties of assessment, accident investigation can provide useful estimates of the role of steering and suspension degradations and failures in causing accidents; studies conducted by the Indiana University Institute for Research in Public Safety indicate that such factors probably account for no more than about 5% of accidents, and other causation studies record similarly low involvement percentages. ...Despite inherent difficulties of assessment, accident investigation can provide useful estimates of the role of steering and suspension degradations and failures in causing accidents; studies conducted by the Indiana University Institute for Research in Public Safety indicate that such factors probably account for no more than about 5% of accidents, and other causation studies record similarly low involvement percentages. ...Despite inherent difficulties of assessment, accident investigation can provide useful estimates of the role of steering and suspension degradations and failures in causing accidents; studies conducted by the Indiana University Institute for Research in Public Safety indicate that such factors probably account for no more than about 5% of accidents, and other causation studies record similarly low involvement percentages. However, neither the influence of different original equipment capabilities nor the role of degradations as a source of driver fatigue has been adequately considered.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Non-Lacerative Windshield in Case of Accident and Under Environmental Conditions

1977-02-01
770246
The four-layer laminated Securiflex windshield has been tested in simulated collisions at the Wayne State University up to 40 mph Barrier Equivalent Velocities, to demonstrate that it causes no laceration. has been exposed to usual and extreme environmental conditions to demonstrate its serviceability in field use. The new windshield consists of a conventional laminated construction (glass/high penetration resistant interlayer/glass) combined with a 0.5 mm innerlayer of plastic. Glass is used on the outer surface of the windshield to withstand the abrasion and scratching of sand, windshield wipers and cleaning. The laminated construction prevents penetration and provides a pocket or cushion action to decelerate the head without injury. The innerlayer is made of a special plastic film which protects the face of the occupants against laceration and eye injury during head impact.
Technical Paper

Simulation Based Probabilistic Assessment of Fatigue Life of Structural Components

2003-03-03
2003-01-0463
Computer simulations based on the Monte Carlo method are often used for the probabilistic assessments of fatigue lives of structures and mechanical components. ...This is due to relatively easy simulation and reliability calculation procedure, particularly if the direct Monte Carlo method is applied. The only disadvantage of such a method is the necessity of large number of repetitions required for a high level of reliability.
Technical Paper

Statistical Strain-Life Fatigue Analysis

1996-02-01
960566
Methods for assessing the variability of fatigue lives of components subjected to variable amplitude loading are described. Monte Carlo simulations are coupled with the local stress strain approach to compute the distribution of fatigue lives that includes uncertainties in loading, material properties, geometry and fatigue damage.
Journal Article

Fatigue Evaluation of Multi-Degree of Freedom, Frequency Domain, Stochastic, Truck Road Load Models

2019-02-11
The stochastic models are divided into two groups: Monte Carlo based and models based on single spectrum matrices. In both cases, the objective is to provide a load model that may be used to produce a design with a certain probability of survival. ...Model parameters investigated included spectrum formulation (averaged vs damage equivalent spectra), polar vs rectangular formulation, and the effect of sorting of outcomes in the Monte Carlo models. For semi-deterministic load models, damage equivalent formulations performed well independent of number of load degrees of freedom, while averaged spectra here consistently under estimated the damage.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Widespread Fatigue Damage in Lap Joints

1999-04-20
1999-01-1586
Fatigue crack growth tests conducted to evaluate the predictive model are summarized, and indicate good agreement between experimental and numerical results. Monte Carlo simulations are then performed to determine the influence of statistical variability on various analysis parameters.
Technical Paper

Analytical Descriptions of Service Loading Suitable for Fatigue Analysis

1997-04-08
971535
In this paper a technique for measuring and extrapolating cumulative exceedance diagrams to quantify the distribution of service loading in a vehicle is described. Monte Carlo simulations are coupled with the local stress strain approach for fatigue to obtain distributions of service loading.
Technical Paper

Integrated Thermal Analysis System (ITAS)

1996-07-01
961376
The code supports full Monte Carlo ray tracing and/or conventional algorithms for view factors, shadow factors, orbital incident/absorbed fluxes, radiation interchange factors, and steady-state and/or transient temperature computations for stationary or spinning spacecraft.
Technical Paper

Reliability-Based Model for Fatigue Notch Effect

2003-03-03
2003-01-0462
The statistics of the microstructural variables that govern the scatter in the fatigue response are estimated. A Monte Carlo Simulation algorithm is developed to combine the three stages of damage accumulation to predict the total life of test specimens.
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