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Book

Vehicle Accident Analysis and Reconstruction Methods, Second Edition

2011-04-12
Thoroughly revised, this new edition builds on the original exploration of accident analysis, reconstruction, and vehicle design. Enhanced with new material and improved chapters on key topics, an expanded glossary of automotive terms, and a bibliography at the end of the book providing further reading suggestions make this an essential resource reference for engineers involved in litigation, forensic investigation, automotive safety, and crash reconstruction. ...Designed for the experienced practitioner, this new book aims to help reconstruction specialists with problems they may encounter in everyday analysis. The authors demonstrate how to take the physics behind accidents out of the idealized world and into practical situations. ...The authors demonstrate how to take the physics behind accidents out of the idealized world and into practical situations. Real-world examples are used to illustrate the methods, clarify important concepts, and provide practical applications to those working in the field.
Technical Paper

An Overview of the Evolution of Computer Assisted Motor Vehicle Accident Reconstruction

1987-10-01
871991
In addition, a brief computer development history is discussed to demonstrate how the evolution of computer assisted vehicle accident reconstruction becomes feasible for a reconstructionist. Possible future research in computer reconstruction is also discussed. ...This paper presents an overview of the evolution of computer simulations in vehicle collision and occupant kinematic reconstructions. The basic principles behind these simulations, the origin of these programs and the evolution of these programs from a basic analytical mathematical model to a sophisticated computer program are discussed. ...Possible future research in computer reconstruction is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Tire Models for Vehicle Dynamic Simulation and Accident Reconstruction

2009-04-20
2009-01-0102
This is particularly true for accident reconstruction applications where vehicle motions can occur over wide ranging kinematic wheel conditions. ...This paper includes a discussion of tire force terminology, tire force mechanics, the measurement and modeling of tire force components and combined tire force models currently used in simulation software for the reconstruction of accidents. The paper discusses the difference between the idealized tire force ellipse and an actual tire friction ellipse. ...The example simulations presented in this paper are not intended to reflect the way vehicle dynamic simulation programs are used typically in accident reconstruction.
Technical Paper

Pickup Truck Rollover Accident Reconstruction Using the ATB Model

1995-02-01
950133
To demonstrate the Articulated Total Body (ATB) model's capability to predict complex rollover accidents, a rollover accident was selected from the National Accident Sampling System (NASS) and simulated. ...The selected accident case involved a pickup truck, crashing at high speed and completing three rolls. The pickup truck was modeled as a single rigid segment with fifteen contact hyperellipsoids rigidly attached to it. ...The initial conditions were defined to match the data in the NASS accident report as closely as possible. Angular and linear accelerations, velocities, and displacements of the vehicle were predicted and reported as well as the ground-vehicle contact forces and the resulting vehicle body deflections.
Book

Rollover Crash Reconstruction

2018-08-07
Each stage of the accident provides valuable insight into the application of reconstruction methodologies. Rollover Accident Reconstruction focuses on tripped, single vehicle rollover crashes that terminate without striking a fixed object. ...Rollover Accident Reconstruction focuses on tripped, single vehicle rollover crashes that terminate without striking a fixed object. ...Rollover accidents continue to be a leading contributor of vehicle deaths. While this continues to be true, it is pertinent to understand the entire crash process.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Sliding Mode Observers for Fault Reconstruction on the ADDSAFE Functional Engineering Simulator

2011-10-18
2011-01-2802
The FDI schemes will ultimately be evaluated in the Industrial Benchmarking and Verification FES which uses Monte Carlo methods to generate a statistical distribution and covers all of the desired flight conditions, perturbations and uncertainties in the aircraft parameters under investigation. ...A robust sliding mode reconstruction scheme for the aircraft lateral axis, based on an LPV system representation is presented. ...The sliding mode LPV scheme utilizes LMIs to synthesize the gains of the observer to minimize the effect of uncertainty on the reconstruction signal. The equivalent output error injection signals are obtained from a second order sliding mode structure, which is less susceptible to noise compared to the typical signum function associated with first order sliding.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Reconstruction and Simulation of Motor Vehicle Accidents

1996-02-01
960890
This paper describes the use of 3-D technologies for reconstructing and simulating motor vehicle accidents involving humans (occupants and pedestrians) and vehicles (passenger cars, pickups, vans, multi-purpose vehicles, on-highway trucks and vehicle-trailers). ...Various reconstruction and simulation models are illustrated. The features and limitations of each model are addressed.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the Relationship Between Active Safety and Accident Prevention

1978-01-01
785046
Determination of driver reaction and vehicle response to driving incidents involving artificially-induced danger and surprise; such tests can safely be conducted on driving courses. 4. Reconstruction and evaluation of traffic accidents through use of questionnaires; Daimler-Benz has already made use of such questionnaires. ...Driver error is the cause of most accidents. Yet "active safety" is difficult to analyze due to the complexity of the processes involved and no unanimity of analytical procedures exists.
Technical Paper

Using ATB in Collision Reconstruction

1995-02-01
950131
This paper discusses ATB/CVS as a tool for use in collision reconstruction. Specific examples are presented in developing a crash pulse from vehicle simulation programs such as EDSMAC, SMAC, HVOSM, etc.
Technical Paper

BUS ROLL OVER ACCIDENT SIMULATION

1979-02-01
790994
The paper describes the theoretical simulation of roll over accidents. A brief account of the findings of accident investigation into bus roll overs is given. ...As experience is gained on the modelling of structural collapse in other types of vehicle structures, it is believed that the program will enable certain accidents to be simulated theoretically.
Technical Paper

ATB Model Simulation of a Rollover Accident with Occupant Ejection

1995-02-01
950134
A rollover accident was selected from the National Accident Sampling System (NASS) for simulation to validate the Articulated Total Body (ATB) model's capability to predict occupant dynamics during rollover accidents and to gain insight into injury mechanisms. ...A rollover accident was selected from the National Accident Sampling System (NASS) for simulation to validate the Articulated Total Body (ATB) model's capability to predict occupant dynamics during rollover accidents and to gain insight into injury mechanisms. Simulations of both the driver and passenger occupants which may be used in future countermeasure studies are performed. ...In the selected accident, a pickup truck rolled multiple times, the belted driver had minor injuries and the unrestrained passenger was ejected with fatal injuries.
Standard

VHDL-AMS Statistical Analysis Packages

2006-10-23
CURRENT
J2748_200610
The performance of a design that uses this package to model parameter tolerances may be analyzed by a Monte Carlo simulation, which consists of multiple simulation runs of the design, each run with a different set of parameter values according to their statistical distributions. ...The performance of a design that uses this package to model parameter tolerances may be analyzed by a Monte Carlo simulation, which consists of multiple simulation runs of the design, each run with a different set of parameter values according to their statistical distributions. The Monte Carlo simulation will yield an estimate of the behavior of the design subject to the parameter tolerances.
Journal Article

The Relationship Between Tire Mark Striations and Tire Forces

2016-04-05
2016-01-1479
Tire mark striations are discussed often in the literature pertaining to accident reconstruction. The discussions in the literature contain many consistencies, but also contain disagreements. ...Human Vehicle Environment (HVE), a common accident reconstruction and vehicle dynamics simulation software package, was then used to compare striation direction as predicted by the striation slip equation to tire force direction in the simulation. ...A companion paper, “Tire Mark Striations: Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis”, focuses on the practical use of striation evidence for accident reconstruction purposes [2].
Technical Paper

Computer Simulation of Single Vehicle Accidents

1967-02-01
670904
However, the developed computer simulation also has potential applications in the reconstruction of single vehicle accidents and in studies of the driving task at the upper limits of vehicle control. ...The results of a review of single vehicle accident statistics and measurements of structural load-deformation properties of automobiles, performed within this research program, are both presented.
Technical Paper

A New Co-Simulation Approach for Tolerance Analysis on Vehicle Propulsion Subsystem

2019-09-09
2019-24-0079
Moreover, a HPC Grid (High Performance Computing Grid) is used with the aim to execute simulations of long engine maneuvers as well as to parallelize jobs while applying Monte Carlo methods. The overall approach is tested on the active thermal management subsystem of a General Motors internal combustion engine in order to evaluate the robustness of control algorithm against electro-mechanical part variation and software calibration settings.
Technical Paper

Stochastic Analysis of Tire-Force Equations

2007-10-30
2007-01-4259
The approach has been proved to be more computationally efficient than traditional stochastic methods such as Monte Carlo (MC), while it can nicely accommodate nonlinear systems with large uncertainties. In this paper, FEM and the MFM have been extended from deterministic to stochastic models, to account for the uncertainties in the tire-road friction coefficient, the slip ratio, the slip angle, and the normal forces in the contact patch.
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