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Technical Paper

Determination of Interior NVH Levels from Tire/Wheel Variations using a Monte Carlo Process

2011-05-17
2011-01-1580
Variability in design (e.g. tolerance), material, manufacturing, or other sources of variation causes significant variation in vehicle noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) response. This leads to a higher percentage of produced vehicles with higher levels of NVH leading to higher number of warranty claims and loss of customer satisfaction, which are proven costly to the original equipment manufacturers (OEM). Measures must be taken to insure less warranty claims and higher levels of customer satisfaction. As a result, original equipment manufacturers have implemented design for variation in the design process to secure an acceptable (or within specification) response. We will focus on some aspects of design variations in a tire/wheel assembly that should be considered in the design process. In particular, certain materials (e.g. rubber) are known to have variation in stiffness that is either unavoidable or proven costly if tighter control is desired.
Journal Article

Vehicle Design for Robust Driveline NVH Due to Imbalance and Runout Using a Monte Carlo Process

2011-05-17
2011-01-1546
Variation in vehicle noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) response can be caused by variability in design (e.g. tolerance), material, manufacturing, or other sources of variation. Such variation in the vehicle response causes a higher percentage of produced vehicles with higher levels (out of specifications) of NVH leading to higher number of warranty claims and loss of customer satisfaction, which are proven costly. Measures must be taken to ensure less warranty claims and higher levels of customer satisfaction. As a result, original equipment manufacturers have implemented design for variation in the design process to secure an acceptable (or within specification) response. This paper focuses on aspects of design variations that should be considered in the design process of drivelines. Variations due to imbalance and runout in rotating components can be unavoidable or costly to control.
Technical Paper

The Role of the Highway Environment in Accident Reconstruction

1985-02-25
850095
The highway environment is an integral part of highway safety from the standpoints of collision causation and severity-increasing factors. Highway designers are faced with the problem of providing highway safety without sufficient information about the compatibility of current design standards with either driver or vehicle factors. Collision data collection efforts have not provided specific roadway performance data. Thus, many designs have been based on intuitive ideas rather than on specific performance information. The manufacturers of the rapidly changing vehicle fleet currently do not either provide input to the highway designer or consider vehicle-roadside appurtance interaction during the vehicle design process. This has led to the less than desired performance of some roadway and roadside design features. This paper identifies the problems faced by the roadway designer, and gives suggestions for solving these problems with real-world roadway performance data.
Technical Paper

Use of Computerized Accident Repair Statistics in Designing for Improved Damageability

1984-02-01
840321
The proliferation of make/model insurance premium rating programs has encouraged auto manufacturers to design new models for reduced accident damage susceptibility and improved repairability. Computerized collision repair estimating has facilitated damageability analysis by providing “real world” accident statistics to evaluate current vehicle designs. ...Computerized collision repair estimating has facilitated damageability analysis by providing “real world” accident statistics to evaluate current vehicle designs. Such information is useful in developing design “do's and don'ts” for future models, determining the competitive position of a manufacturer's products or parts pricing levels, establishing damageability objectives for future models and projecting status as the design evolves, determining the effects of downsizing or new materials and correlating damageability crash testing to field experience.
Technical Paper

engine out dynamic emissions signal reconstruction via conventional exhaust gas analyzer

2019-09-15
2019-24-0238
Since September 2018, the Euro 6c stage has introduced a dual validation via a new vehicle test bench procedure (WLTC) and a Real Drive Emission (RDE) cycle. The latter will generate a very large scope of conditions to be taken into account, making the calibration and validation tasks much more complex. In the meantime, the development duration and costs are decreasing drastically. Tests on prototype vehicles become then critical, both for time and cost. Reducing them with earlier engine test bench procedures is an up-to-date challenge for car manufacturers and suppliers. Some commercial or internal tools exist to generate a driving cycle on engine test bench. However, one should be able to measure dynamically pollutant emissions during these cycles, especially engine-out emissions in the view to estimate the engine potential and design the after treatment system.
Technical Paper

Designing a Specified Reliability Directly into a Component

1964-01-01
640615
Probabilistic methods of calculating the reliability of components from their stress and strength distributions is developed and illustrated. Monte Carlo techniques of determining stress and strength distributions, given the distributions of the parameters affecting them are presented.
Technical Paper

Thermal Radiation Analysis on Automotive Lamp Using CFD and Ray Tracing Method

2017-03-28
2017-01-1737
Then, the accuracy and computational cost of the method were compared with thermal results obtained by a thermal radiation model using Monte Carlo (MC) technique for calculating radiation effect coupled with CFD in heat transfer analysis. ...According to the study results, the Monte Carlo method can give a more accurate thermal analysis results for a license plate lamp, whereas the two-day faster ray tracing mapping analysis can also give a similar tendency of temperature distribution on the lamp as well.
Technical Paper

An Excel Based Robust Design Tool for Vehicle Structural Optimization

2004-03-08
2004-01-1124
The RBDO process starts from running simulation at DOE sampling data points, generating surrogate models (response surface) and performing robust and reliability based design optimization on the surrogate models by using Monte Carlo simulation. This paper presents a RBDO framework in Excel enviroment. Within this framework, the engineer can perform DOE sampling, surrogate modeling, robustness assessment, Monte Carlo simulation, robust design and reliability-based optimization with any type of distribution. ...Within this framework, the engineer can perform DOE sampling, surrogate modeling, robustness assessment, Monte Carlo simulation, robust design and reliability-based optimization with any type of distribution.
Journal Article

Fatigue Evaluation of Multi-Degree of Freedom, Frequency Domain, Stochastic, Truck Road Load Models

2019-02-11
The stochastic models are divided into two groups: Monte Carlo based and models based on single spectrum matrices. In both cases, the objective is to provide a load model that may be used to produce a design with a certain probability of survival. ...Model parameters investigated included spectrum formulation (averaged vs damage equivalent spectra), polar vs rectangular formulation, and the effect of sorting of outcomes in the Monte Carlo models. For semi-deterministic load models, damage equivalent formulations performed well independent of number of load degrees of freedom, while averaged spectra here consistently under estimated the damage.
Technical Paper

A Probabilistic Approach to Multivariate Constrained Robust Design Simulation

1997-10-01
975508
The approach previously proposed by the authors, linking Response Surface Methodology with Monte Carlo Simulations, has revealed itself to be cumbersome and at times impractical for multi-constraint, multi-objective problems. ...The paper critically reviews the combined Response Surface Equation/ Monte Carlo Simulation methodology and compares it against the Advanced Mean Value (AMV) method, one of several Fast Probability Integration techniques. ...The Advanced Mean Value method shows significant time savings over the Response Surface Equation/Monte Carlo Simulation method, and generally yields more accurate CDF distributions. The paper also illustrates how by using the AMV method for distribution generation, robust design solutions to multivariate constrained problems may be obtained.
Journal Article

Robust Analysis and Optimization Design of Double Front Axle Steering System

2014-05-20
2013-01-9124
This paper proposes a robust optimization design method for a double front axle steering system (DFASS) of heavy trucks based on Monte Carlo method. The DFASS consists of two trapezoidal steering mechanisms (TSM) and one rocker system, and the optimization objectives of DFASS include the minimum mean value and variance of the maximum turning angle error of the TSM and rocker system.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fatigue Analysis Tool Chain for Automotive Structural Applications

2005-04-11
2005-01-0502
This paper examines the integration of existing finite element pre & post processors, fatigue analysis codes & software robots; for the purpose of providing the designer with parameter sensitivity studies and robustness analysis through Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS). These tools are aimed at exploiting ever growing high performance computing (HPC) resources to provide more robust designs while reducing the design cycle time.
Technical Paper

A New Co-Simulation Approach for Tolerance Analysis on Vehicle Propulsion Subsystem

2019-09-09
2019-24-0079
Moreover, a HPC Grid (High Performance Computing Grid) is used with the aim to execute simulations of long engine maneuvers as well as to parallelize jobs while applying Monte Carlo methods. The overall approach is tested on the active thermal management subsystem of a General Motors internal combustion engine in order to evaluate the robustness of control algorithm against electro-mechanical part variation and software calibration settings.
Technical Paper

A Reduced-Order Enclosure Radiation Modeling Technique for Aircraft Actuators

2010-11-02
2010-01-1741
Since INVENT is focusing on mission-level capabilities with the objective of achieving full and continuous dynamic predictions, a reduced-order enclosure radiation model was developed, wherein a Monte Carlo analysis tool accepts simple geometric representations of the actuators and bays, and determines the appropriate view factors via isotropic emission of discrete energy packets.
Book

Integrated Automotive Safety Handbook

2013-10-08
New technologies in sensors and electronic control units, and the growing knowledge of car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure technologies have led to a fusion of the previously separated areas of accident avoidance (popularly known as active safety) and mitigation of injuries (popularly known as passive safety) into the newer concept of integrated vehicle safety. ...This new approach represents a further step toward lowering accident rates. This book, written by two of the foremost automotive engineering safety experts, takes a unique and comprehensive approach to describing all areas of vehicle safety: accident avoidance, pre-crash, mitigation of injuries, and post-crash technologies, providing a solutions-based perspective of integrated vehicle safety. ...This book, written by two of the foremost automotive engineering safety experts, takes a unique and comprehensive approach to describing all areas of vehicle safety: accident avoidance, pre-crash, mitigation of injuries, and post-crash technologies, providing a solutions-based perspective of integrated vehicle safety.
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