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Accident Reconstruction Technology

2011-04-04
The authoritative content source for the Accident Reconstruction community, SAE Accident Reconstruction technical resources include content curated and developed with intensive feedback from industry professionals. ...The papers in this resource cover: Biomechanics and injuries Failure analysis Occupant dynamics and kinematics Computer modeling Human factors Vehicle dynamics Rollover ADDITIONAL ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION CONTENT SAE International provides a full line of Accident Reconstruction Information Products; a selection of assets containing the latest accident reconstruction and crash research, along with critical knowledge, publications, and training tools. ...The Accident Reconstruction Technology subscription provides unlimited access to SAE Technical Papers covering more than 50 years of global applied research, development and applications in the field of accident reconstruction.
Technical Paper

An Application of Computer Graphics for Vehicle Accident Reconstruction

1991-02-01
910367
The purpose of this paper is to show how a computer graphics is used in the process of accident reconstruction. The case of a serious and complicated accident, which involved many vehicles, is illustrated and the process of the accident reconstruction is explained in order to illustrate this technique. ...Accident reconstruction cannot be carried out without assumptions. So the assumptions must be examined to determine whether errors exist. ...The case of a serious and complicated accident, which involved many vehicles, is illustrated and the process of the accident reconstruction is explained in order to illustrate this technique.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Accident Reconstruction of Tractor-Semitrailers

1985-09-01
851529
The reconstruction of tractor-semitrailer accidents as well as the handling performance of these vehicles presents a challenging problem to the engineer. ...The methodology for the development of a modular minicomputer operational mathematical model for tractor-semitrailer accident reconstruction and handling problems and its verification are presented. Also, several problems which illustrate some of the features of the program and its graphics capabilities are included. ...A computer model for such an analysis permits the analyst to investigate the effect of the many variables in short periods of time and be able to obtain an accurate explanation of how an accident occurred. The methodology for the development of a modular minicomputer operational mathematical model for tractor-semitrailer accident reconstruction and handling problems and its verification are presented.
Technical Paper

The Measured Rolling Resistance of Vehicles for Accident Reconstruction

1998-02-23
980368
Knowledge about vehicle rolling resistance is required to calculate speed loss of accident vehicles during portions of their pre-impact and post-impact trajectory when they are not braking or sliding directly sideways. ...The accuracy of assumed rolling resistance values is most important in accidents with long post-impact roll out distances. Very little hard data are currently available1 and the accident reconstructionist must usually make estimates of drivetrain losses and normal and damaged tire rolling resistance to determine overall vehicle rolling resistance. ...Very little hard data are currently available1 and the accident reconstructionist must usually make estimates of drivetrain losses and normal and damaged tire rolling resistance to determine overall vehicle rolling resistance.
Technical Paper

Computers in Motor Vehicle Accident Reconstruction: A Review

1987-10-01
871995
A review of the literature and reference to actual case accidents, shows that use of these tools in “actual” cases must be done with utmost caution. Many of the variables present in actual accidents are shown to be difficult, or impossible, for current computer simulations to address. ...Many of the variables present in actual accidents are shown to be difficult, or impossible, for current computer simulations to address.
Technical Paper

An Overview of the Evolution of Computer Assisted Motor Vehicle Accident Reconstruction

1987-10-01
871991
In addition, a brief computer development history is discussed to demonstrate how the evolution of computer assisted vehicle accident reconstruction becomes feasible for a reconstructionist. Possible future research in computer reconstruction is also discussed. ...This paper presents an overview of the evolution of computer simulations in vehicle collision and occupant kinematic reconstructions. The basic principles behind these simulations, the origin of these programs and the evolution of these programs from a basic analytical mathematical model to a sophisticated computer program are discussed. ...Possible future research in computer reconstruction is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Handling Response and Accident Reconstruction of Tractor-Semitrailers Using Micro and Minicomputers

1985-12-01
852358
The handling response of heavy duty trucks and tractor-semitrailers as well as the reconstruction of accidents involving these vehicles presents a challenging problem to the engineer. ...The methodology for the development of a modular minicomputer operational mathematical model for tractor-semitrailer accident reconstruction and handling problems and its verification are presented. Also, several problems which illustrate some of the features of the program and its graphics capabilities are included. ...A computer model for such an analysis permits the analyst to investigate the effect of the many variables in short periods of time and not only address the problem of handling response but also be able to obtain an accurate explanation of how an accident occurred. The methodology for the development of a modular minicomputer operational mathematical model for tractor-semitrailer accident reconstruction and handling problems and its verification are presented.
Technical Paper

Crush Energy and Planar Impact Mechanics for Accident Reconstruction

1998-02-23
980025
The algorithm used in the third version of the Calspan Reconstruction of Accident Speeds on the Highway (CRASH3) and planar impact mechanics are both used to calculate energy loss and velocity changes of vehicle collisions. ...A method is proposed that exploits the features of both methods for vehicle accident reconstructions.
Technical Paper

Accident Reconstruction with Data Recorded by Electronic Control Units in Vehicles with a Pre-crash Safety System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1440
Data recorded by vehicle-mounted electronic control units (ECUs) are highly useful in traffic accident reconstruction. In this context, event data recorders (EDRs) are airbag ECU components used to log information from crash events, typically providing data on speed, accelerator operation, RPMs and brake lamp activation for a period of around 5 s before a collision. ...Thus, it is important to check the accuracy of EDR speed data in accident reconstruction. Meanwhile, pre-crash safety systems (PCSs) are also becoming more widespread in automobile usage today. ...Such systems automatically apply braking in hazardous situations, and the relevant data recorded in the ECU are promising in the field of accident reconstruction. This study involved physical tests in the form of simulated rear-end collisions and the collection of recorded PCS data at the post-test stage.
Technical Paper

Acoustical Optimization Using Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods and SEA Modeling

2005-05-16
2005-01-2431
For many complicated design challenges, including those involving sophisticated computer simulations and modeling, it is vital to have a systematic and efficient method for exploring available design spaces and finding optimal or near-optimal design solutions. A simple method for relatively quick and straight-forward sampling and subsequent evaluation of design spaces is proposed. No special optimization software or expertise in optimization is required.
Technical Paper

Stability Considerations in the Mathematical Reconstruction of Traffic Accidents

1976-02-01
760775
Computerized simulations of traffic accidents are done for research and for reconstruction purposes. Motions of several interacting bodies, however, are prone to be highly instable. ...The results obtained seem to support the hypothesis that all accident motions are instable to some degree. In each accident situation to be simulated or reconstructed on a computer it has therefore to be decided whether the appearing instabilities are tolerable or not.
Technical Paper

Computer Simulation of Automobile Collision -Reconstruction of Accidents

1985-12-01
851729
In analyzing road accidents, it is important to estimate the vehicle behavior and the occupant movement according to the accident site conditions, such as the final vehicle rest position, damage profiles and tire scuffs. ...In analyzing road accidents, it is important to estimate the vehicle behavior and the occupant movement according to the accident site conditions, such as the final vehicle rest position, damage profiles and tire scuffs. ...It is found that a considerably good agreement exists between both data, and that this model may be used as a computerized accident analysis method.
Technical Paper

Computer Accident Simulation - Pretty Pictures and the Real World

1991-02-01
910368
Examples of various cases are presented to illustrate the engineer's accident reconstruction and how the reconstruction is used to establish the computer simulation. ...A Computer Accident Simulation (CAS) is the application of dynamics to known physical evidence to yield a best approximation of the interactions of vehicles and other objects during the real world accident scenario. The simulation is based upon the reconstruction after an engineer's examination of the vehicles involved, the roadway (i.e., skid marks and gouges), and any substantiated evidence from witnesses. ...A Computer Accident Simulation (CAS) is the application of dynamics to known physical evidence to yield a best approximation of the interactions of vehicles and other objects during the real world accident scenario.
Technical Paper

Experimental Reconstruction and Mathematical Modelling of Real World Pedestrian Accidents

1983-02-01
830189
Several similar real world pedestrian accidents are described and a number of different methods of reconstructing these accidents are reported. ...The results of full scale experimental reconstructions of two of the accidents using both dummies and cadavers as the pedestrian surrogate are presented. ...The relative merits of different methods of reproducing accidents are considered and a methodology for the reproduction of real world accidents outlined.
Technical Paper

The New Approach of In-Depth-Accident-Investigation based on the Methodology for Traffic Accident Database on Scenarios TADS

2016-04-05
2016-01-1472
Such simulations should, of course, be based on real world scenario such as the pre-crash phase of real world accidents. Several methodologies for building up accident scenarios have been developed in the past. ...This paper shows a new method for generating pre-crash scenarios directly from the reconstruction of the accident by using the software PC-Crash1. The new method was developed by the Medical University Hannover (MHH) and the Fraunhofer Institute for Transportation Dresden (Fraunhofer IVI). ...It is based on transferring all information (participant-, vehicle-, environment- and motion-data) from the reconstruction file into a scenario-database. In order to analyse the pre-crash situation of real-world accidents and changing boundary conditions (e.g. introduction of certain active safety systems), a socalled Pre Crash Matrix (PCM) was developed.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Finite Element Models for Head Injury Investigation: Reconstruction of Four Real-World Impacts

2005-11-09
2005-22-0001
Hence, using two computer models of the head/brain, the objective of the current study was to reconstruct four real-world crashes with known head injury outcomes in a full-vehicle crash laboratory, simulate head/brain responses using kinematics obtained during these reconstructions, and to compare the results predicted by the models against the actual injuries sustained by the occupant.
Technical Paper

Computer-Aided 3-D Surface Reconstruction During High Speed Crush Events

1991-02-01
910320
A system which can remotely measure detailed deformations of vehicle structures during crush events was developed. The system uses ordinary video or 16 mm high speed movie to capture the crush event. This information is digitized and analyzed using personal computers to perform photogrammetric manipulations which yield accurate surface geometries. The output is useful for comparison to computer simulations. This paper presents preliminary results regarding the accuracy of this system.
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