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Technical Paper

Determination of Vehicle Velocities and Collision Location by Means of Monte Carlo Simulation Method

2006-04-03
2006-01-0907
“collision from the right-hand side of the center line” – “collision from the left-hand side of the center line”, or “the accident could have been avoided” – “the accident could not be avoided”). The aim of the paper was to present a method of collision reconstruction calculation using the principle of conservation of momentum, the principle of energy conservation, and the principle of kinetic energy and work equivalence (energy balance) (Marquard), taking into consideration Monte Carlo simulation method. ...The aim of the paper was to present a method of collision reconstruction calculation using the principle of conservation of momentum, the principle of energy conservation, and the principle of kinetic energy and work equivalence (energy balance) (Marquard), taking into consideration Monte Carlo simulation method. The applicability of the method in determination of distribution function for vehicle collision velocities was proved and, what is more important, its practical uselessness in determination of collision location. ...In road accident analysis the problem of uncertainty of calculation results becomes essential particularly when modification of input values within the adopted ranges leads to diametric change of the answer to the question posed by the court of justice (e.g.
Journal Article

Bootstrapping and Separable Monte Carlo Simulation Methods Tailored for Efficient Assessment of Probability of Failure of Structural Systems

2015-04-14
2015-01-0420
Therefore, to account for the uncertainty, the safety of the system must be quantified using its reliability. Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) is widely used for probabilistic analysis because of its robustness. ...Smarslok et al. [2010] developed an improved sampling technique for reliability assessment called Separable Monte Carlo (SMC) that can significantly increase the accuracy of estimation without increasing the cost of sampling.
Journal Article

Automatic Transmission Gear Ratio Optimization and Monte Carlo Simulation of Fuel Consumption with Parasitic Loss Uncertainty

2015-04-14
2015-01-1145
An enterprise approach for vehicle fleet balancing of fuel consumption objectives based upon selection of automatic transmission gearing strategy is presented. Monte Carlo simulations for the influence of parasitic loss uncertainty for the automatic transmissions selected from the generalized DOE were conducted to determine the range of fuel consumption that might be realized in production. ...Automatic transmission gearing parameter selection was unaffected by the variation introduced by the Monte Carlo simulations, but did show fuel consumption performance to vary upwards of 9 g CO2/km depending on applications and to have a direct impact on powertrain operating parameters.
Journal Article

A Monte Carlo Based Turbulent Flame Propagation Model for Predictive SI In-Cylinder Engine Simulations Employing Detailed Chemistry for Accurate Knock Prediction

2012-09-10
2012-01-1680
The flame development was calculated from the turbulent flame speed under the assumption of a spherical flame. A Monte Carlo geometry calculation was applied to cater for arbitrary cylinder geometries and spark plug positions, modelling the geometrical properties of the flame with high precision. ...In later stages of the project, a polygon based description of the flame surface was used, to achieve faster computational times than those of the Monte Carlo model.
Technical Paper

Crush Energy and Planar Impact Mechanics for Accident Reconstruction

1998-02-23
980025
The algorithm used in the third version of the Calspan Reconstruction of Accident Speeds on the Highway (CRASH3) and planar impact mechanics are both used to calculate energy loss and velocity changes of vehicle collisions. ...A method is proposed that exploits the features of both methods for vehicle accident reconstructions.
Technical Paper

Component and System Life Distribution Prediction Using Weibull and Monte Carlo Analysis with Reliability Demonstration Implications for an Electronic Diesel Fuel Injector

2003-03-03
2003-01-1363
This paper presents a methodology to predict component and system reliability and durability. The methodology is illustrated with an electronic diesel fuel injector case study that integrates customer usage data, component failure distribution, system failure criteria, manufacturing variation, and variation in customer severity. Extension to the vehicle system level enables correlation between component and system requirements. Further, this analysis provides the basis to establish a knowledge-based test option for a success test validation program to demonstrate reliability.
Technical Paper

Accident Reconstruction with Data Recorded by Electronic Control Units in Vehicles with a Pre-crash Safety System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1440
Data recorded by vehicle-mounted electronic control units (ECUs) are highly useful in traffic accident reconstruction. In this context, event data recorders (EDRs) are airbag ECU components used to log information from crash events, typically providing data on speed, accelerator operation, RPMs and brake lamp activation for a period of around 5 s before a collision. ...Thus, it is important to check the accuracy of EDR speed data in accident reconstruction. Meanwhile, pre-crash safety systems (PCSs) are also becoming more widespread in automobile usage today. ...Such systems automatically apply braking in hazardous situations, and the relevant data recorded in the ECU are promising in the field of accident reconstruction. This study involved physical tests in the form of simulated rear-end collisions and the collection of recorded PCS data at the post-test stage.
Technical Paper

Engineering Models and Animations in Vehicular Accident Studies

1988-02-01
880719
Scale accident scene models combined with aerial photography to enhance realism has been extensively utilized in evaluation, analysis and presentation of vehicular accident reconstructions to non-technical audiences. Slide and video accident animations have been produced directly from aerial photograph enhanced models and have been used successfully in courtroom presentations since the 1970's. ...Vehicle accident analysis relies heavily on mathematics and the principles of conservation of energy and momentum and Newton's laws of motion. ...The analytical procedure is interactive using a combination of model analysis and computer-aided engineering analysis to determine linear and angular velocities and accelerations. Scale accident scene models combined with aerial photography to enhance realism has been extensively utilized in evaluation, analysis and presentation of vehicular accident reconstructions to non-technical audiences.
Technical Paper

Application of Signal Reconstruction to On-Road Emissions Testing

1999-05-03
1999-01-1462
Data was taken from these analyzers and passed, off-line, through the reconstruction filter. In addition, part of the Federal Urban Driving Schedule was simulated on the chassis dynamometer and emissions data collected from the test vehicle.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of Pressure Signals on Structure-borne Sound for Knock Investigation

2004-03-08
2004-01-0521
Knocking combustions decrease the efficiency of an SI engine and can cause damages in combustion chambers. The in-cylinder pressure signal provides an insight into the combustions. Due to cost and installation reasons, vibration signals are used for knock analysis in conventional engines; however, vibration signal analysis is less effective than pressure signal analysis. The aim of this paper is to approximate the pressure signal, which is more suitable for knock investigation, from structure-borne sound. Therefore, new models for pressure and vibration signals, related to each other, are presented. These models consist of constructional specific signal components and combustion specific random parameters. The signal components need to be determined only once for an engine by using ordinary mathematical tools. A least-squares method, applied on vibration signals, leads to estimates of the random parameters.
Technical Paper

Mechatronics Based Accident Alarming System with Automatic Roadblock Prevention System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1728
In any unlikely event of accidents or vehicle breakdown, there is accumulation of traffic which results in road-blockage and causes in convenience to other vehicles. ...If this happens in remote areas, the accidents victims are left unattended and there is delay in providing emergency services. In case of traffic, it obstructs the entry of ambulance and rescue team which results in death of passengers. ...To prevent this mishap, a mechatronics based road block avoidance and accident alarming system is designed which is automated by the use of sensors. The road-block is detected with the help sensors located at regular intervals on road.
Technical Paper

Validity of Low Ventilation for Accident Processing with Hydrogen Leakage from Hydrogen-Fuelled Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-0211
Appropriate emergency response information is required for first responder before hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will become widespread. This paper investigates experimentally the hydrogen dispersion in the vicinity of a vehicle which accidentally releases hydrogen horizontally with a single volumetric flow of 2000 NL/min in the under-floor section while varying cross and frontal wind effects. This hydrogen flow rate represents normally a full throttle power condition. Forced wind was about maximum 2 m/s. The results indicated that the windward side of the vehicle was safe but that there were chiefly two areas posing risks of fire by hydrogen ignition. One was the leeward side of the vehicle's underbody where a larger region of flammable hydrogen dispersion existed in light wind than in windless conditions. The other was the area around the hydrogen leakage point where most of the leaked hydrogen remained undiffused in an environment with a wind of no stronger than 2 m/s.
Technical Paper

The Development and Application of Side Impact Component Test Methods

1984-04-01
840887
The development of reliable and repeatable test equipment to be used for the evaluation of a vehicle's side impact performance involves a thorough consideration of a variety of accident conditions and performance factors. Reconstruction and analysis of both vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-fixed object accident configurations have provided a basis for the design of component test procedures. ...Reconstruction and analysis of both vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-fixed object accident configurations have provided a basis for the design of component test procedures. Specific test hardware for body interiors and components has been developed and is described.
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