Fundamentals of ElectricAircraft was developed to explain what the electricaircraft stands for by offering an objective view of what can be expected from the giant strides in innovative architectures and technologies enabling aircraft electrification. ...Through tangible case studies, a deep insight is provided into this paradigm shift cutting across various aircraft segments – from General Aviation to Large Aircraft. Addressing design constraints and timelines foreseen to reach acceptable performance and maturity levels, Fundamentals of Electric Aircraft puts forward a general view of the progress made to date and what to expect in the years to come. ...Addressing design constraints and timelines foreseen to reach acceptable performance and maturity levels, Fundamentals of ElectricAircraft puts forward a general view of the progress made to date and what to expect in the years to come.
The standard delineates the characteristics of electric power supplied to airborne equipment at the equipment terminals and the requirements for the utilization of such electric power by the airborne equipment. ...The standard delineates the characteristics of electric power supplied to airborne equipment at the equipment terminals and the requirements for the utilization of such electric power by the airborne equipment.
This paper describes the technologies pursuant to more electricaircraft. The title “More ElectricAircraft” is an appropriate appellation to describe the inexorable trend towards the use of more electrics in future advanced military and commercial aircraft. ...The trend is not without justification since under the acronyms of AEA (All Electric Aircraft) and IDEA (Integrated Digital ElectricAircraft) studies completed by the Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company (LASC) and Boeing revealed major weight and cost savings as well as significant improvements in logistics/maintenance support. ...The title “More Electric Aircraft” is an appropriate appellation to describe the inexorable trend towards the use of more electrics in future advanced military and commercial aircraft. This trend is sponsored and supported by the U.S.
The application of power electronics in aircraft is increasing in the latest aircraft developments. This contribution focuses on the recent advances of activities at Liebherr-Elektronik GmbH linked to power electronics: active power filter based on fast silicon carbide switches, open box design for unpressurized area, light weight housing, EMC management, partial discharge detection and mitigation, arc-fault detection and standardized innovative power cores with optimized sensors. ...These key drivers will enable the future More ElectricAircraft (MEA) by focusing on weight, reliability and cost. New technologies as Silicon Carbide (SiC) and advanced integration will support this strategy.
It should not be surprising that more electricaircraft must meet significantly more difficult electrical power system requirements than were considered when today’s power distribution systems were being developed. ...In addition, the operation of electric actuators involves high transient loading and reverse energy flows. Such phenomena were also not anticipated when power quality was specified for either 270 VDC or 400 Hertz ac power systems.
The aerospace industry is beginning to grapple with the reality of certifying electricaircraft (EA), signaling the maturing of the field. Many players are ramping up their activities to respond to imminent technical, safety, and regulatory requirements. ...Unsettled Issues Regarding the Certification of ElectricAircraft tackles the certification challenges faced by EA manufacturers in both the small (normal) and large (transport) categories, addressing technical, business, and process issues. ...In the new EA paradigm, these components will be employed at criticality levels not previously witnessed in conventional aircraft, calling for a specific set of certification demands. Unsettled Issues Regarding the Certification of Electric Aircraft tackles the certification challenges faced by EA manufacturers in both the small (normal) and large (transport) categories, addressing technical, business, and process issues.
Energy storage options for a hybrid electric commercial single aisle aircraft were investigated. The propulsion system features twin Geared Turbofan™ engines in which each low speed spool is assisted by a 2,500 HP electric motor during takeoff and climb. ...The propulsion system features twin Geared Turbofan™ engines in which each low speed spool is assisted by a 2,500 HP electric motor during takeoff and climb. During cruise, the aircraft is powered solely by the turbine engines which are sized for efficient operation during this mission phase. ...Energy storage in fuels was also considered along with various converters sized to produce a targeted quantity of electric power. The fuel and converters include fuel cells (both proton exchange membrane and solid oxide operating on hydrogen or on jet fuel) and a turbogenerator (jet fuel or LNG).
The Focke-Wulf Fw 190 was one of the truly outstanding fighter aircraft of the Second World War. It distinguished itself over all fronts on which the Luftwaffe fought in conditions ranging from arctic wastes to the deserts of North Africa. ...Conceived nearly sixty years ago, flying for the first time on the eve of the war in 1939 and acknowledged as “the best all-around fighter in the world” in the mid-war years, derivatives of the Fw 190 were still pushing the ultimate capability boundary for this class of aircraft at war's end in 1945 (reaching maximum level true airspeeds of 470 mph [about Mach 0.7] at altitudes of well over 40,000 feet). ...In this, the design team achieved a remarkable success; the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 was one of, and perhaps was, the most flexible multi-role fighter aircraft to see wide-spread service during World War II. Today, as the United States and its close allies consider the combination of design attributes and enabling technologies necessary for an affordable family of future multi-service/multi-role combat aircraft featuring a high degree of commonality (under the aegis of the Joint Strike Fighter or JSF program), the example of the Fw 190 provides a insightful lesson from history.
Aiming at the global energy optimization of aircraft, the More ElectricAircraft (MEA) concept becomes more interesting for the aeronautical industry. ...The MEA concept is based on utilizing electric power to drive aircraft subsystems that historically have been driven by a combination of hydraulic, electric, pneumatic and mechanical power transfer systems. ...In all phases of the system development process, the respective subsystems within the MEA will be treated in a highly integrated manner to achieve optimum efficiency and performance at aircraft and systems level. Concerning the electric network in the future MEA, advanced design and analysis methods based on mathematical models are required to face the potential issues accompanying the MEA.
Electric-powered environment control systems (ECS), electrical actuators, electric de-icing, etc. are some examples of aircraft systems under consideration. Electric starting of the engine and the conversion of all the pneumatic and hydraulic units on the accessory gearbox (AGB) to an electric system are also being investigated. ...To meet these challenges in the automotive industry, significant work has been done in the areas of electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles. In the case of airplanes, more electric architecture is the emerging trend. ...The intent is to move as many aircraft loads as possible to electrical power, resulting in simpler aircraft systems leading to the potential for lower fuel consumption, reduced emissions, reduced maintenance, and possibly lower costs.
The concept of a more electricaircraft has revolutionized the way aircraft and subsystems are being built. New components are also proving to be more efficient, resulting in the possibility of changing the way systems are cooled.
Advancements in electrical, mechanical, and structural design onboard modern more electricaircraft have added significant stress to the thermal management systems (TMS). A thermal management system level analysis tool has been created in MATLAB/Simulink to facilitate rapid system analysis and optimization to meet the growing demands of modern aircraft. ...A thermal management system level analysis tool has been created in MATLAB/Simulink to facilitate rapid system analysis and optimization to meet the growing demands of modern aircraft. It is anticipated that the tracking of thermal energy through numerical integration will lead to more accurate predictions of worst case TMS sizing conditions.
This paper addresses the challenges inherent in meeting the new power quality requirements needed on today's more electricaircraft. Technologies that generate low total distortion and minimize individual current harmonics are discussed.
Both systems are optimized on conventional aircraft in which hydraulic, pneumatic and electric systems are supplied for control and equipment. ...Although a conventional aircraft needs hydro pumps and air compressors, the coming of a new era of more-electric architecture for aircraft and propulsion will be the stimulus to improve aircraft systems . In more-electric aircraft, the authors focus on the low-pressure spool generation system of aero-engines. ...Existing aircraft employ an auxiliary power unit (APU) and a ram air turbine (RAT) for power generation besides aero-engine generators.