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Reconstruction and Analysis of Rollover Crashes of Light Vehicles

For automotive engineers involved in crash reconstruction and analysis, a knowledge of basic accident reconstruction principles and techniques is essential, but often insufficient to answer all of the questions posed by design engineers, regulators, and lawyers. This seminar takes participants beyond the basics of accident reconstruction to physical models and analysis techniques that are unique to the reconstruction of single-vehicle rollover crashes.
Journal Article

Sensitivity Analysis and Improvement of the Rollover Propensity of Large Articulated Vehicles on Roundabouts Using Design of Experiments

First, the roundabout driving safety evaluation based on the rollover propensity index calculated with the tire loads was performed through various PC-Crash simulation analysis. And, using the Taguchi method, which is a representative DOE method, major factors affecting the rollover index were set by type and the sensitivity analysis results were quantitatively obtained.
Technical Paper

Using PC-Crash to Analyze Motorcycle Slide to Stop Dynamics

Parameters such as vehicle weight, sliding friction factor, motorcycle sliding trajectory, and yaw trajectory will be accounted for in each PC-Crash simulation. All tests were simulated using a 2D and 3D motorcycle model in PC-Crash. Additionally, calculated averaged slide-to-stop decelerations and slide-to-stop distances based on physical evidence were used and verified in the PC-Crash simulation. ...PC-Crash is an accident reconstruction program that enables the user to analyze vehicle collision dynamics and trajectory models. ...This research paper presents the utilization of PC-Crash to analyze motorcycle slide-to-stop dynamics. For this study, existing motorcycle slide-to-stop data from SAE 2019-01-0426 will be simulated and analyzed in PC-Crash.
Journal Article

Validation of a PC-Crash Multibody Sport Bike Motorcycle Model

PC-Crash is an accident reconstruction program allowing the user to perform simulations with multibody objects that collide or interact with 3D vehicle mesh models. ...The current motorcycle models in PC-Crash are generic and do not resemble a sport bike type motorcycle. They are only globally scalable such that you cannot adjust length, width, or height independently. ...The test results were compared to parameters calculated in PC-Crash. Results such as Delta-V, yaw rate and overall post impact trajectories of the motorcycle, rider and movement of the target vehicle were compared to the data from the instrumented test vehicles.
Technical Paper

Pycrash: An Open-Source Tool for Accident Reconstruction

In this paper, the current capabilities of Pycrash are illustrated and its accuracy is assessed using matching PC-Crash simulations performed using PC-Crash. The results indicate that Pycrash is well-equipped to perform fundamental accident reconstruction analyses, including impact related effects, but its simplified suspension model is a limitation.
Technical Paper

In-Depth Analysis of Pedestrian-Vehicle Accidents Based on Chi-Square Test and Logistic Regression

Taking the pedestrian-vehicle accidents in the China in-Depth Accident Study (CIDAS) database as a sample case, 13 accidents morphological parameters were selected from three aspects: human, vehicle and environmental factors, and their depth analysis was carried out to obtain their distribution law through the card. The chi-square test and logistic regression method are used to analyze the correlation between the injury severity of pedestrians and other accidental morphological parameters in pedestrian-vehicle accidents. The results show that there is no significant correlation between gender/season and injury severity of pedestrians. The age of pedestrians and the collision speed is the strongest correlation with injury severity of pedestrians.
Technical Paper

Residual Injury Situation and Accident Characteristics of Severe Motorcycle Accidents

The total number of persons severely and fatally injured in road traffic accidents has reduced considerably in recent decades. However, the number of motorcyclists involved in accidents has not reduced to the same extent, and some countries have even recorded an increase. The aim of this study is to analyse the circumstances of motorcycle accidents in Germany involving vehicles with a cubic capacity of over 125 cm3 with particular reference to severely or fatally injured riders. An analysis is to be made of the characteristics and patterns of injuries suffered by the most severely injured motorcyclists and proposals developed for injury prevention. The study included accident data from 464 motorcycle accidents collected in Hanover and Dresden between 2010 and 2015 by an academic research team in the course of the GIDAS project (German In-Depth Accident Study). This data represents a statistically representative sample from real accidents occurring in Germany.
Technical Paper

Accuracy and Sensitivity of Yaw Speed Analysis to Available Data

Accident reconstructionists rarely have complete data with which to determine vehicle speed, and so the true value must be bracketed within a range. Previous work has shown the effect of friction uncertainty in determining speed from tire marks left by a vehicle in yaw. The goal of the current study was to assess improvements in the accuracy of vehicle speed estimated from yaw marks using progressively more scene and vehicle information. Data for this analysis came from staged S-turn maneuvers that in some cases led to rollover of sport utility vehicles. Initial speeds were first calculated using the critical curve speed (CCS) formula on the yaw marks from the first portion of the S-maneuver. Then computer simulations were performed with progressively more input data: i) the complete tire marks from the whole S-maneuver, ii) measured vehicle mass, iii) measured suspension stiffness and damping, and iv) measured steering history.
Journal Article

Reconstructing Vehicle Dynamics from On-Board Event Data

These predictions were generated by directly integrating the VCH data and by using the VCH data as inputs to PC-Crash simulations. The predicted positions and headings were then compared to the actual position and heading data measured using differential GPS synchronized to the VCH data record.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Review and Extension of Two Decades of Research Related to PC-Crash Simulation Software

PC-Crash is a vehicular accident simulation software that is widely used by the accident reconstruction community. ...The goal of this article is to review the prior literature that has addressed the capabilities of PC-Crash and its accuracy and reliability for various applications (planar collisions, rollovers, and human motion). ...In addition, this article aims to add additional analysis of the capabilities of PC-Crash for simulating planar collisions and rollovers. Simulation analysis of five planar collisions originally reported and analyzed by Bailey [2000] are reexamined.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian Throw Distance Impact Speed Contour Plots Using PC-Crash

However, based on investigated pedestrian collisions, the location where the pedestrian has engaged with the vehicle can and does significantly influence the throw distance (and projection) and subsequent impact speed analysis. PC-Crash was used to simulate multiple pedestrian impacts at varying speeds and vehicle impact locations, creating pedestrian throw distance impact speed contour plots.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Acceleration Modeling in PC-Crash

The research reported here offers a validation of this capability, demonstrating that PC-Crash can be used to realistically model the build-up of a vehicle's speed under maximal acceleration. ...In the research reported here, PC-Crash 9.0 was used to model the full-throttle acceleration capabilities of three vehicles with automatic transmissions - a 2006 Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor (CVPI), a 2000 Cadillac DeVille DTS, and a 2003 Ford F150. ...In each case, the full-throttle acceleration of the vehicles modeled in PC-Crash showed good agreement with the acceleration of the real vehicles in our road tests.