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Technical Paper

Effects of Situational Urgency on the Perception and Response Time to Lateral Collision Hazards

2021-04-06
2021-01-0857
Situational urgency influences the perception and response time (PRT) interval of drivers confronting emergency collision hazards. However, a gap exists in our understanding of the movement characteristics of a collision hazard that directly contribute to a driver’s decision to initiate an evasive response. The aim of this experiment is to examine how the movement characteristics of intruding vehicles affect an oncoming driver’s PRT interval. Fourteen subjects viewed first-person perspective recordings of a simulated vehicle travelling along a two-lane roadway. Collision hazards were introduced when stopped vehicles positioned at intersecting roadways unexpectedly intruded into the subject’s path. Subjects were instructed to ‘brake’ their vehicle by pressing a keyboard space bar when they perceived that evasive actions were required to avoid a collision.
Technical Paper

Mobility in mining: Issues for road safety improvement

2021-03-26
2020-36-0125
The increase of mining activities in the northern regions of Chile has brought about a new environment in terms of mobility to those areas where this industry has moved forward. This change has not only affected road traffic accidents on public roads of the surrounding mines, but also the inner organization of the mining companies, which must fulfill strict regulations, achieving the highest levels of safety. Given this situation, the current road traffic accidentology with respect to the northern regions of Chile has been analyzed in this paper. The results of the analysis have shown the relevant weight of the human factor and the state of the infrastructure related to the number of road fatalities. Thus, this paper provides solutions to combine the existing driver-centered technologies together with GPS systems that can track the movement of several vehicles and the design of safety berms in mine haul roads to mitigate the number of fatalities associated with mining activity.
Technical Paper

In-Depth Analysis of Pedestrian-Vehicle Accidents Based on Chi-Square Test and Logistic Regression

2019-11-04
2019-01-5050
Taking the pedestrian-vehicle accidents in the China in-Depth Accident Study (CIDAS) database as a sample case, 13 accidents morphological parameters were selected from three aspects: human, vehicle and environmental factors, and their depth analysis was carried out to obtain their distribution law through the card. The chi-square test and logistic regression method are used to analyze the correlation between the injury severity of pedestrians and other accidental morphological parameters in pedestrian-vehicle accidents. The results show that there is no significant correlation between gender/season and injury severity of pedestrians. The age of pedestrians and the collision speed is the strongest correlation with injury severity of pedestrians.
Technical Paper

Residual Injury Situation and Accident Characteristics of Severe Motorcycle Accidents

2019-04-02
2019-01-0638
The total number of persons severely and fatally injured in road traffic accidents has reduced considerably in recent decades. However, the number of motorcyclists involved in accidents has not reduced to the same extent, and some countries have even recorded an increase. The aim of this study is to analyse the circumstances of motorcycle accidents in Germany involving vehicles with a cubic capacity of over 125 cm3 with particular reference to severely or fatally injured riders. An analysis is to be made of the characteristics and patterns of injuries suffered by the most severely injured motorcyclists and proposals developed for injury prevention. The study included accident data from 464 motorcycle accidents collected in Hanover and Dresden between 2010 and 2015 by an academic research team in the course of the GIDAS project (German In-Depth Accident Study). This data represents a statistically representative sample from real accidents occurring in Germany.
Technical Paper

Accuracy and Sensitivity of Yaw Speed Analysis to Available Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0417
Accident reconstructionists rarely have complete data with which to determine vehicle speed, and so the true value must be bracketed within a range. Previous work has shown the effect of friction uncertainty in determining speed from tire marks left by a vehicle in yaw. The goal of the current study was to assess improvements in the accuracy of vehicle speed estimated from yaw marks using progressively more scene and vehicle information. Data for this analysis came from staged S-turn maneuvers that in some cases led to rollover of sport utility vehicles. Initial speeds were first calculated using the critical curve speed (CCS) formula on the yaw marks from the first portion of the S-maneuver. Then computer simulations were performed with progressively more input data: i) the complete tire marks from the whole S-maneuver, ii) measured vehicle mass, iii) measured suspension stiffness and damping, and iv) measured steering history.
Book

Collision Reconstruction Methodologies Volume 9: Bicycle Accident Reconstruction

2018-11-02
The last ten years have seen explosive growth in the technology available to the collision analyst, changing the way reconstruction is practiced in fundamental ways. The greatest technological advances for the crash reconstruction community have come in the realms of photogrammetry and digital media analysis. The widespread use of scanning technology has facilitated the implementation of powerful new tools to digitize forensic data, create 3D models and visualize and analyze crash vehicles and environments. The introduction of unmanned aerial systems and standardization of crash data recorders to the crash reconstruction community have enhanced the ability of a crash analyst to visualize and model the components of a crash reconstruction. Because of the technological changes occurring in the industry, many SAE papers have been written to address the validation and use of new tools for collision reconstruction.
Book

Collision Reconstruction Methodologies Volume 4: Motorcycle Accident Reconstruction

2018-11-02
The last ten years have seen explosive growth in the technology available to the collision analyst, changing the way reconstruction is practiced in fundamental ways. The greatest technological advances for the crash reconstruction community have come in the realms of photogrammetry and digital media analysis. The widespread use of scanning technology has facilitated the implementation of powerful new tools to digitize forensic data, create 3D models and visualize and analyze crash vehicles and environments. The introduction of unmanned aerial systems and standardization of crash data recorders to the crash reconstruction community have enhanced the ability of a crash analyst to visualize and model the components of a crash reconstruction. Because of the technological changes occurring in the industry, many SAE papers have been written to address the validation and use of new tools for collision reconstruction.
Book

Collision Reconstruction Methodologies Volume 6B: Rollover Accident Reconstruction

2018-11-02
The last ten years have seen explosive growth in the technology available to the collision analyst, changing the way reconstruction is practiced in fundamental ways. The greatest technological advances for the crash reconstruction community have come in the realms of photogrammetry and digital media analysis. The widespread use of scanning technology has facilitated the implementation of powerful new tools to digitize forensic data, create 3D models and visualize and analyze crash vehicles and environments. The introduction of unmanned aerial systems and standardization of crash data recorders to the crash reconstruction community have enhanced the ability of a crash analyst to visualize and model the components of a crash reconstruction. Because of the technological changes occurring in the industry, many SAE papers have been written to address the validation and use of new tools for collision reconstruction.
Book

Collision Reconstruction Methodologies Volume 6C: Rollover Accident Reconstruction

2018-11-02
The last ten years have seen explosive growth in the technology available to the collision analyst, changing the way reconstruction is practiced in fundamental ways. The greatest technological advances for the crash reconstruction community have come in the realms of photogrammetry and digital media analysis. The widespread use of scanning technology has facilitated the implementation of powerful new tools to digitize forensic data, create 3D models and visualize and analyze crash vehicles and environments. The introduction of unmanned aerial systems and standardization of crash data recorders to the crash reconstruction community have enhanced the ability of a crash analyst to visualize and model the components of a crash reconstruction. Because of the technological changes occurring in the industry, many SAE papers have been written to address the validation and use of new tools for collision reconstruction.
Book

Collision Reconstruction Methodologies Volume 10B: Pedestrian Collisions

2018-11-02
The last ten years have seen explosive growth in the technology available to the collision analyst, changing the way reconstruction is practiced in fundamental ways. The greatest technological advances for the crash reconstruction community have come in the realms of photogrammetry and digital media analysis. The widespread use of scanning technology has facilitated the implementation of powerful new tools to digitize forensic data, create 3D models and visualize and analyze crash vehicles and environments. The introduction of unmanned aerial systems and standardization of crash data recorders to the crash reconstruction community have enhanced the ability of a crash analyst to visualize and model the components of a crash reconstruction. Because of the technological changes occurring in the industry, many SAE papers have been written to address the validation and use of new tools for collision reconstruction.
Book

Collision Reconstruction Methodologies Volume 10A: Pedestrian Collisions

2018-11-02
The last ten years have seen explosive growth in the technology available to the collision analyst, changing the way reconstruction is practiced in fundamental ways. The greatest technological advances for the crash reconstruction community have come in the realms of photogrammetry and digital media analysis. The widespread use of scanning technology has facilitated the implementation of powerful new tools to digitize forensic data, create 3D models and visualize and analyze crash vehicles and environments. The introduction of unmanned aerial systems and standardization of crash data recorders to the crash reconstruction community have enhanced the ability of a crash analyst to visualize and model the components of a crash reconstruction. Because of the technological changes occurring in the industry, many SAE papers have been written to address the validation and use of new tools for collision reconstruction.
Book

Collision Reconstruction Methodologies Volume 6A: Rollover Accident Reconstruction

2018-11-02
The last ten years have seen explosive growth in the technology available to the collision analyst, changing the way reconstruction is practiced in fundamental ways. The greatest technological advances for the crash reconstruction community have come in the realms of photogrammetry and digital media analysis. The widespread use of scanning technology has facilitated the implementation of powerful new tools to digitize forensic data, create 3D models and visualize and analyze crash vehicles and environments. The introduction of unmanned aerial systems and standardization of crash data recorders to the crash reconstruction community have enhanced the ability of a crash analyst to visualize and model the components of a crash reconstruction. Because of the technological changes occurring in the industry, many SAE papers have been written to address the validation and use of new tools for collision reconstruction.
Technical Paper

Estimating Benefits of LDW Systems Applied to Cross-Centerline Crashes

2018-04-03
2018-01-0512
Objective: Opposite-direction crashes can be extremely severe because opposing vehicles often have high relative speeds. The most common opposite direction crash scenario occurs when a driver departs their lane driving over the centerline and impacts a vehicle traveling in the opposite direction. This cross-centerline crash mode accounts for only 4% of all non-junction non-interchange crashes but 25% of serious injury crashes of the same type. One potential solution to this problem is the Lane Departure Warning (LDW) system which can monitor the position of the vehicle and provide a warning to the driver if they detect the vehicle is moving out of the lane. The objective of this study was to determine the potential benefits of deploying LDW systems fleet-wide for avoidance of cross-centerline crashes. Methods: In order to estimate the potential benefits of LDW for reduction of cross-centerline crashes, a comprehensive crash simulation model was developed.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Review and Extension of Two Decades of Research Related to PC-Crash Simulation Software

2018-04-03
2018-01-0523
PC-Crash is a vehicular accident simulation software that is widely used by the accident reconstruction community. ...The goal of this article is to review the prior literature that has addressed the capabilities of PC-Crash and its accuracy and reliability for various applications (planar collisions, rollovers, and human motion). ...In addition, this article aims to add additional analysis of the capabilities of PC-Crash for simulating planar collisions and rollovers. Simulation analysis of five planar collisions originally reported and analyzed by Bailey [2000] are reexamined.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into C-NCAP AEB System Assessment Protocol

2017-09-23
2017-01-2009
In order to speed up the development of vehicle active safety technology in China, C-NCAP plans to add AEB and AEB VRU system as assessment items in 2018. With the purpose of studying the assessment protocol of AEB system, we have carried out 400,000 km road information collection and then we acquired the statistics of the operation conditions of dangerous situations. Combined with the traffic accident data collected by CIDAS, we found that the dangerous situations that we usually met were mainly three types, that was CCRs, CCRm and CCRb. Based on what we mentioned above, we analyzed the three kinds of working conditions and gave the corresponding evaluation method. In addition, combined with the actual situation of China, we added two tests of error function. And then we took the actual road experiment of many models of vehicles.
Standard

Rollover Testing Methods

2017-07-28
CURRENT
J2926_201707
The scope of this document is to provide an overview of the techniques found in the published literature for rollover testing and rollover crashworthiness evaluation at the vehicle and component levels. It is not a comprehensive literature review, but rather illustrates the techniques that are in use or have been used to evaluate rollover crashworthiness-related issues.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of Pediatric Occupant Kinematic Responses Using Finite Element Method in a Real-World Lateral Impact

2017-03-28
2017-01-1462
Computational human body models, especially detailed finite element models are suitable for investigation of human body kinematic responses and injury mechanism. A real-world lateral vehicle-tree impact accident was reconstructed by using finite element method according to the accident description in the CIREN database. At first, a baseline vehicle FE model was modified and validated according to the NCAP lateral impact test. The interaction between the car and the tree in the accident was simulated using LS-Dyna software. Parameters that affect the simulation results, such as the initial pre-crash speed, impact direction, and the initial impact location on the vehicle, were analyzed. The parameters were determined by matching the simulated vehicle body deformations and kinematics to the accident reports.
Technical Paper

Real-time Crash Detection and Its Application in Incident Reporting and Accident Reconstruction

2017-03-28
2017-01-1419
Characterizing or reconstructing incidents ranging from light to heavy crashes is one of the enablers for mobility solutions for fleet management, car-sharing, ride-hailing, insurance etc. While crashes involving airbag deployment are noticeable, light crashes without airbag deployment can be hidden and most drivers do not report these incidents. In this paper, we are using vehicle responses together with a dynamics model to trace back if abnormal forces have been applied to a vehicle so as to detect light crashes. The crash location around the perimeter of the vehicle, the direction of the crash force, and the severity of the crashes are all determined in real-time based on on-board sensor measurements which has further application in accident reconstruction. All of this information will be integrated to a feature called “Incident Report”, which enable reporting of minor accidents to the relevant entities such as insurance agencies, fleet managements, etc.
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