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Technical Paper

Driver Perception of Lateral Collision Threats

Immediate collision hazards pose obvious threats to approaching drivers and therefore provoke emergency evasive responses. When the hazard is a vehicle intruding into the lane ahead, how its movement characteristics influence an approaching driver’s response is not well understood. This study examined the relationship between intruding vehicle motion and hazard perception. Seventeen subjects viewed first-person perspective recordings of a simulated vehicle travelling down a two-lane roadway containing several intersections with stop-controlled minor roads. Stopped vehicles were located at approximately half of the minor road intersections. Throughout the study, some vehicles (termed ‘intruders’) accelerated into the subject’s lane of travel at 1 of 6 pre-determined acceleration rates. Subjects were instructed to ‘brake’ their vehicle by pressing the space bar on a keyboard as soon as they perceived that a collision was imminent.
Technical Paper

Estimating Benefits of LDW Systems Applied to Cross-Centerline Crashes

Objective: Opposite-direction crashes can be extremely severe because opposing vehicles often have high relative speeds. The most common opposite direction crash scenario occurs when a driver departs their lane driving over the centerline and impacts a vehicle traveling in the opposite direction. This cross-centerline crash mode accounts for only 4% of all non-junction non-interchange crashes but 25% of serious injury crashes of the same type. One potential solution to this problem is the Lane Departure Warning (LDW) system which can monitor the position of the vehicle and provide a warning to the driver if they detect the vehicle is moving out of the lane. The objective of this study was to determine the potential benefits of deploying LDW systems fleet-wide for avoidance of cross-centerline crashes. Methods: In order to estimate the potential benefits of LDW for reduction of cross-centerline crashes, a comprehensive crash simulation model was developed.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into C-NCAP AEB System Assessment Protocol

In order to speed up the development of vehicle active safety technology in China, C-NCAP plans to add AEB and AEB VRU system as assessment items in 2018. With the purpose of studying the assessment protocol of AEB system, we have carried out 400,000 km road information collection and then we acquired the statistics of the operation conditions of dangerous situations. Combined with the traffic accident data collected by CIDAS, we found that the dangerous situations that we usually met were mainly three types, that was CCRs, CCRm and CCRb. Based on what we mentioned above, we analyzed the three kinds of working conditions and gave the corresponding evaluation method. In addition, combined with the actual situation of China, we added two tests of error function. And then we took the actual road experiment of many models of vehicles.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Acceleration Modeling in PC-Crash

The research reported here offers a validation of this capability, demonstrating that PC-Crash can be used to realistically model the build-up of a vehicle's speed under maximal acceleration. ...In the research reported here, PC-Crash 9.0 was used to model the full-throttle acceleration capabilities of three vehicles with automatic transmissions - a 2006 Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor (CVPI), a 2000 Cadillac DeVille DTS, and a 2003 Ford F150. ...In each case, the full-throttle acceleration of the vehicles modeled in PC-Crash showed good agreement with the acceleration of the real vehicles in our road tests.
Technical Paper

Measuring and Modeling Suspensions of Passenger Vehicles

Numerical parameters describing suspension stiffness and damping are required for 3D simulation of vehicle trajectories, but may not be available. This paper outlines a simple, portable method of measuring these properties with a coefficient of variation of 5% on stiffness. 24 of 26 vehicles tested were significantly stiffer in roll than pitch, complicating analyses with models that don't include anti-roll. Suspension parameters did not correlate with static wheel load distribution, and damping coefficient did not correlate with natural frequency. Computer simulations of the speed required to initiate rollover in an S-curve were highly sensitive to the suspension parameters used. When pre-impact tire marks and rollover distance were considered, the simulations became almost insensitive to suspension parameters.
Technical Paper

Empirical Testing of Vehicular Rotational Motion

Vehicles often rotate during traffic collisions due to impact forces or excessive steering maneuvers. In analyzing these situations, accident reconstructionists need to apply accurate deceleration rates for vehicles that are both rotating and translating to a final resting position. Determining a proper rate of deceleration is a challenging but critical step in calculating energy or momentum-based solutions for analytical purposes. In this research, multiple empirical tests were performed using an instrumented vehicle that was subjected to induced rotational maneuvers. A Ford Crown Victoria passenger car was equipped with a modified brake system where selected wheels could be isolated. The tests were performed on a dry asphalt surface at speeds of approximately 50 mph. In each of the tests, the vehicle rotated approximately 180 degrees with the wheels on one side being completely locked.
Technical Paper

Simulating Moving Motorcycle to Moving Car Crashes

There has been little published research into simulating two-moving motorcycle-to-car collisions for the purpose of accident reconstruction. In this paper a series of two-moving crash tests were conducted to study collisions of this type. These tests used a range of speeds for the cars and the motorcycles involved, with perpendicular and oblique intersection collision impact configurations. The tests were then simulated with two popular crash simulation packages which were not designed to simulate motorcycles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate existing techniques and develop new techniques for simulating motorcycles in these software packages and then to examine the ability of each package to simulate a two-moving motorcycle-to-car crash. The results demonstrate that it is indeed possible to simulate a motorcycle in these packages and that both packages can simulate two-moving motorcycle-to-car crashes reasonably well.
Journal Article

A Bayesian Approach to Cross-Validation in Pedestrian Accident Reconstruction

In statistical modeling, cross-validation refers to the practice of fitting a model with part of the available data, and then using predictions of the unused data to test and improve the fitted model. In accident reconstruction, cross-validation is possible when two different measurements can be used to estimate the same accident feature, such as when measured skidmark length and pedestrian throw distance each provide an estimate of impact speed. In this case a Bayesian cross-validation can be carried out by (1) using one measurement and Bayes theorem to compute a posterior distribution for the impact speed, (2) using this posterior distribution to compute a predictive distribution for the second measurement, and then (3) comparing the actual second measurement to this predictive distribution. An actual measurement falling in an extreme tail of the predictive distribution suggests a weakness in the assumptions governing the reconstruction.
Journal Article

Vehicle and Occupant Responses in a Friction Trip Rollover Test

Objective: A friction rollover test was conducted as part of a rollover sensing project. This study evaluates vehicle and occupant responses in the test. Methods: A flat dolly carried a Saab 9-3 sedan laterally, passenger-side leading to a release point at 42 km/h (26 mph) onto a high-friction surface. The vehicle was equipped with roll, pitch and yaw gyros near the center of gravity. Accelerometers were placed at the vehicle center tunnel, A-pillar near the roof, B-pillar near the sill, suspension sub-frame and wheels. Five off-board and two on-board cameras recorded kinematics. Hybrid III dummies were instrumented for head and chest acceleration and upper neck force and moment. Belt loads were measured. Results: The vehicle release caused the tires and then wheel rims to skid on the high-friction surface. The trip involved roll angular velocities >300 deg/s at 0.5 s and a far-side impact on the driver’s side roof at 0.94 s. The driver was inverted in the far-side, ground impact.
Technical Paper

Determination of Vehicle Velocities and Collision Location by Means of Monte Carlo Simulation Method

In road accident analysis the problem of uncertainty of calculation results becomes essential particularly when modification of input values within the adopted ranges leads to diametric change of the answer to the question posed by the court of justice (e.g. “collision from the right-hand side of the center line” – “collision from the left-hand side of the center line”, or “the accident could have been avoided” – “the accident could not be avoided”). The aim of the paper was to present a method of collision reconstruction calculation using the principle of conservation of momentum, the principle of energy conservation, and the principle of kinetic energy and work equivalence (energy balance) (Marquard), taking into consideration Monte Carlo simulation method. The applicability of the method in determination of distribution function for vehicle collision velocities was proved and, what is more important, its practical uselessness in determination of collision location.
Technical Paper

Near and Far-Side Adult Front Passenger Kinematics in a Vehicle Rollover

In this study, U.S. accident data was analyzed to determine interior contacts and injuries for front-seated occupants in rollovers. The injury distribution for belted and unbelted, non-ejected drivers and right front passengers (RFP) was assessed for single-event accidents where the leading side of the vehicle rollover was either on the driver or passenger door. Drivers in a roll-left and RFP in roll-right rollovers were defined as near-side occupants, while drivers in roll-right and RFP in roll-left rollovers were defined as far-side occupants. Serious injuries (AIS 3+) were most common to the head and thorax for both the near and far-side occupants. However, serious spinal injuries were more frequent for the far-side occupants, where the source was most often coded as roof, windshield and interior.
Technical Paper

Validation of the Coupled PC-CRASH - MADYMO Occupant Simulation Model

During recent years the accident simulation program PCCRASH was developed, which allows to simulate the vehicles movement before, during and after the impact. ...Within SAE 1999-01-0444 a new coupling interface of PC-CRASH and the software MADYMO, developed by TNO in the Netherlands was published. During last year's publication only few validation cases, mainly related to rear end impacts could be demonstrated. ...One major emphasis was set on the influence of the crash pulse, which cannot be derived in PC-CRASH. In this way the paper demonstrates the possibilities as well as the limitations of the numerical model.
Technical Paper

The Accident Research Unit Hannover as Example for Importance and Benefit of Existing In Depth Investigations

The In-Depth Investigations of the Accident Research Unit Hannover (Germany), which have been carried out since 1973 are described in the paper. The importance of the detailed analysis consists in the method, in the statistical approach and the continuous data collection over the years. The government as well as industrial manufacturers use this data. Since 1985 a statistical procedure including a mathematical weighting procedure has been applied. About 1000 cases per year are collected. In the paper, principal aspects in the technique of data collection, definitions of variables and possibilities of data usage are described. The limitations of in-depth investigations are discussed in principle, and demands for a worldwide level are pointed out.