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Technical Paper

Analysis of a Dolly Rollover with PC-Crash

The current capabilities of PC-Crash for rollover modeling are discussed and suggestions are made for how PC-Crash might be improved for modeling rollovers. ...This paper evaluates the use of PC-Crash simulation software for modeling the dynamics of a dolly rollover crash test. The specific test used for this research utilized a Ford sport utility vehicle and was run in accordance with SAE J2114. ...Next, the test was modeled using PC-Crash. The simulation was optimized to yield a reasonable fit with the actual test dynamics by changing the following parameters in PC-Crash: (1) the friction coefficient associated with each vehicle-to-ground impact; (2) the coefficient of restitution for vehicle-to-ground impacts; (3) the vehicle body stiffness; and (4) the vehicle suspension and damping.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Acceleration Modeling in PC-Crash

The research reported here offers a validation of this capability, demonstrating that PC-Crash can be used to realistically model the build-up of a vehicle's speed under maximal acceleration. ...In the research reported here, PC-Crash 9.0 was used to model the full-throttle acceleration capabilities of three vehicles with automatic transmissions - a 2006 Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor (CVPI), a 2000 Cadillac DeVille DTS, and a 2003 Ford F150. ...In each case, the full-throttle acceleration of the vehicles modeled in PC-Crash showed good agreement with the acceleration of the real vehicles in our road tests.
Technical Paper

The Collision and Trajectory Models of PC-CRASH

This paper presents the trajectory and collision models on which PC-CRASH is based. PC-CRASH'S model for predicting the 3D kinematics of a vehicle's pre- and post-impact trajectory, which is based on a discrete- kinetic time forward simulation of vehicle dynamics rather than empirically-derived “spin-out coefficients”, is described. ...PC-CRASH is a windowso-based accident-reconstruction program which combines the simulation of pre-collision, collision, and post-collision dynamics for multiple vehicles in a graphical environment.
Technical Paper

The Trailer Simulation Model of PC-CRASH

The program PC-CRASH was developed for the reconstruction of vehicle accidents and considers pre-impact, collision and post-impact phases. ...The present paper describes the physical and mathematical model which was added recently to PC-CRASH in order to enable the simulation of the dynamic behavior of articulated vehicles (with both single and double axle semi-trailers and with steered trailers).
Technical Paper

A Comparison Study between PC-Crash Simulation and Instrumented Handling Maneuvers

Lateral acceleration, roll angle, roll rate, and yaw rate vehicle response from PC-Crash were compared to the MSAI sensor data. The authors modeled 26 handling tests. PC-Crash appeared to be a reasonable tool for modeling gross vehicle response. ...This research compares vehicle dynamic simulations in PC-Crash 8.2 to data recorded during instrumented handling tests conducted by Mechanical Systems Analysis Incorporated (MSAI). ...Vehicle weight, center of gravity (c.g) position, suspension stiffness parameters, tire parameters, steering angle, and vehicle speed data provided by MSAI were used as input for the PC-Crash model. Lateral acceleration, roll angle, roll rate, and yaw rate vehicle response from PC-Crash were compared to the MSAI sensor data.
Technical Paper

Validation of PC-Crash - A Momentum-Based Accident Reconstruction Program

PC-Crash is a Windows™ - based accident reconstruction program developed in Graz, Austria by Dr. Hermann Steffan. ...Hermann Steffan. PC-Crash collision analysis results are compared with previously published staged collision data. ...The staged collisions were reconstructed using PC-Crash and the trajectories were compared to actual measurements of the skid marks and rest positions.
Technical Paper

Validation of a PC-Crash Multibody Sport Bike Motorcycle Model

PC-Crash is an accident reconstruction program allowing the user to perform simulations with multibody objects that collide or interact with 3D vehicle mesh models. ...The current motorcycle models in PC-Crash are generic and do not resemble a sport bike type motorcycle. They are only globally scalable such that you cannot adjust length, width, or height independently. ...The test results were compared to parameters calculated in PC-Crash. Results such as Delta-V, yaw rate and overall post impact trajectories of the motorcycle, rider and movement of the target vehicle were compared to the data from the instrumented test vehicles.
Technical Paper

Validation of the Coupled PC-CRASH - MADYMO Occupant Simulation Model

During recent years the accident simulation program PCCRASH was developed, which allows to simulate the vehicles movement before, during and after the impact. ...Within SAE 1999-01-0444 a new coupling interface of PC-CRASH and the software MADYMO, developed by TNO in the Netherlands was published. During last year's publication only few validation cases, mainly related to rear end impacts could be demonstrated. ...One major emphasis was set on the influence of the crash pulse, which cannot be derived in PC-CRASH. In this way the paper demonstrates the possibilities as well as the limitations of the numerical model.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Review and Extension of Two Decades of Research Related to PC-Crash Simulation Software

PC-Crash is a vehicular accident simulation software that is widely used by the accident reconstruction community. ...The goal of this article is to review the prior literature that has addressed the capabilities of PC-Crash and its accuracy and reliability for various applications (planar collisions, rollovers, and human motion). ...In addition, this article aims to add additional analysis of the capabilities of PC-Crash for simulating planar collisions and rollovers. Simulation analysis of five planar collisions originally reported and analyzed by Bailey [2000] are reexamined.
Technical Paper

Data from Five Staged Car to Car Collisions and Comparison with Simulations

Five collisions were staged in order to evaluate PC-Crash, a simulation program used for investigating motor vehicle collisions. Both vehicles were moving in all of the staged collisions at 1:1 or 2:1 speed ratios. ...Firstly, collision parameters were calculated from measured data, and used as input to the PC-Crash collision model. Secondly, the post-impact vehicle paths and rest positions were used to determine the pre-impact speeds. ...Using the PC-Crash "Optimizer" to reconstruct the five collisions, the error in calculated pre-impact speeds of the ten vehicles ranged from-3.3 to +4.1 km/h.
Journal Article

Reconstructing Vehicle Dynamics from On-Board Event Data

These predictions were generated by directly integrating the VCH data and by using the VCH data as inputs to PC-Crash simulations. The predicted positions and headings were then compared to the actual position and heading data measured using differential GPS synchronized to the VCH data record.
Technical Paper

Field Effectiveness Calculation of Integrated Safety Systems

The vehicle dynamics of all scenarios from the database will be simulated in PC-Crash, an accident-reconstruction software. Since the brake assist is obligatory from 2012 on, the system and its effect on each single accident scenario will be modeled.
Technical Paper

The Measured Rolling Resistance of Vehicles for Accident Reconstruction

Knowledge about vehicle rolling resistance is required to calculate speed loss of accident vehicles during portions of their pre-impact and post-impact trajectory when they are not braking or sliding directly sideways. The accuracy of assumed rolling resistance values is most important in accidents with long post-impact roll out distances. Very little hard data are currently available1 and the accident reconstructionist must usually make estimates of drivetrain losses and normal and damaged tire rolling resistance to determine overall vehicle rolling resistance. In the first part of this study, the rolling resistances of various vehicles with different drive configurations are determined, based on accurate measurements made with a 5th wheel. In the second part, sensitivity analyses are done with PC-Crash2, a computer simulation program, to determine what effect the error in assumed rolling resistance has on speed calculations for various types of post-impact trajectories.