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Technical Paper

Validation of the Coupled PC-CRASH - MADYMO Occupant Simulation Model

2000-03-06
2000-01-0471
During recent years the accident simulation program PCCRASH was developed, which allows to simulate the vehicles movement before, during and after the impact. ...Within SAE 1999-01-0444 a new coupling interface of PC-CRASH and the software MADYMO, developed by TNO in the Netherlands was published. During last year's publication only few validation cases, mainly related to rear end impacts could be demonstrated. ...One major emphasis was set on the influence of the crash pulse, which cannot be derived in PC-CRASH. In this way the paper demonstrates the possibilities as well as the limitations of the numerical model.
Journal Article

Verification of ABS Models Applied in Programs for Road Accident Simulation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0070
The objective of the paper is to present the results of verification of ABS models applied in PC-Crash and HVE (Human-Vehicle-Environment) computer programs in various road conditions. The aim was reached by comparison of the road tests results obtained and calculations performed using the programs for the same initial values of the measured variables.
Technical Paper

Mobility in mining: Issues for road safety improvement

2021-03-26
2020-36-0125
The increase of mining activities in the northern regions of Chile has brought about a new environment in terms of mobility to those areas where this industry has moved forward. This change has not only affected road traffic accidents on public roads of the surrounding mines, but also the inner organization of the mining companies, which must fulfill strict regulations, achieving the highest levels of safety. Given this situation, the current road traffic accidentology with respect to the northern regions of Chile has been analyzed in this paper. The results of the analysis have shown the relevant weight of the human factor and the state of the infrastructure related to the number of road fatalities. Thus, this paper provides solutions to combine the existing driver-centered technologies together with GPS systems that can track the movement of several vehicles and the design of safety berms in mine haul roads to mitigate the number of fatalities associated with mining activity.
Technical Paper

RASSI: A Systematic Approach for On-site Crash Investigations and In-depth Accident Data Collection in India

2013-01-09
2013-26-0031
India's growing trend of serious road accidents has created an urgent need to understand the primary factors involved in these crashes and in the resulting severe injuries and fatalities. In order to improve the safety of highways and automobiles for all road users, a consortium of safety researchers and vehicle manufacturers has come together to collect first-hand, detailed and consistent crash and injury data for traffic accidents on Indian roads. After three years of pilot studies, a methodology, called Road Accident Sampling System - India (RASSI), has been developed for conducting on-site crash investigations and collecting in-depth accident data on road accidents in India. The processes developed under RASSI to investigate onsite crashes and collect quality accident data suitable for detailed analysis are described. The program includes all types of traffic accidents with injury outcomes.
Technical Paper

Near and Far-Side Adult Front Passenger Kinematics in a Vehicle Rollover

2001-03-05
2001-01-0176
In this study, U.S. accident data was analyzed to determine interior contacts and injuries for front-seated occupants in rollovers. The injury distribution for belted and unbelted, non-ejected drivers and right front passengers (RFP) was assessed for single-event accidents where the leading side of the vehicle rollover was either on the driver or passenger door. Drivers in a roll-left and RFP in roll-right rollovers were defined as near-side occupants, while drivers in roll-right and RFP in roll-left rollovers were defined as far-side occupants. Serious injuries (AIS 3+) were most common to the head and thorax for both the near and far-side occupants. However, serious spinal injuries were more frequent for the far-side occupants, where the source was most often coded as roof, windshield and interior.
Journal Article

Vehicle and Occupant Responses in a Friction Trip Rollover Test

2009-04-20
2009-01-0830
Objective: A friction rollover test was conducted as part of a rollover sensing project. This study evaluates vehicle and occupant responses in the test. Methods: A flat dolly carried a Saab 9-3 sedan laterally, passenger-side leading to a release point at 42 km/h (26 mph) onto a high-friction surface. The vehicle was equipped with roll, pitch and yaw gyros near the center of gravity. Accelerometers were placed at the vehicle center tunnel, A-pillar near the roof, B-pillar near the sill, suspension sub-frame and wheels. Five off-board and two on-board cameras recorded kinematics. Hybrid III dummies were instrumented for head and chest acceleration and upper neck force and moment. Belt loads were measured. Results: The vehicle release caused the tires and then wheel rims to skid on the high-friction surface. The trip involved roll angular velocities >300 deg/s at 0.5 s and a far-side impact on the driver’s side roof at 0.94 s. The driver was inverted in the far-side, ground impact.
Technical Paper

Comparisons of Devices for Measuring Acceleration vs. Time in Braking Tests

2008-04-14
2008-01-0180
The coefficient of friction between a vehicle's tires and the roadway is a key parameter in any accident reconstruction. With the proliferation of vehicle dynamics software, it is often important to have more details regarding the tires interaction with the road than simply the average deceleration rate. Devices which can provide the peak friction as the braking develops, along with the average deceleration during the fully developed sliding phase, are necessary. There are now products widely available to the accident reconstruction market which provides these parameters as well as detailed acceleration vs. time curves. The following products capable of providing these results were tested: Accelerex, Vericom VC3000, and two general purpose accelerometers made by Silicon Designs and Dimension Engineering. Tests were conducted on wet and dry asphalt surfaces using a variety of passenger vehicles and transit buses which confirmed the agreement between these devices.
Technical Paper

Empirical Testing of Vehicular Rotational Motion

2012-04-16
2012-01-0602
Vehicles often rotate during traffic collisions due to impact forces or excessive steering maneuvers. In analyzing these situations, accident reconstructionists need to apply accurate deceleration rates for vehicles that are both rotating and translating to a final resting position. Determining a proper rate of deceleration is a challenging but critical step in calculating energy or momentum-based solutions for analytical purposes. In this research, multiple empirical tests were performed using an instrumented vehicle that was subjected to induced rotational maneuvers. A Ford Crown Victoria passenger car was equipped with a modified brake system where selected wheels could be isolated. The tests were performed on a dry asphalt surface at speeds of approximately 50 mph. In each of the tests, the vehicle rotated approximately 180 degrees with the wheels on one side being completely locked.
Technical Paper

Uncertainty Study of Road Accident Reconstruction - Computational Methods

2005-04-11
2005-01-1195
The article demonstrates selected issues related to assessment of computational accuracy in accident analysis. The hereto presented theoretical grounds of the methods make it possible to consider uncertainties in the assessment of input data values. The methods were compared on the basis of their exemplary application in the case of braking process study of a vehicle in rectilinear motion. Also for the aforementioned case, the results obtained by means of various computational methods of vehicle motion (analytical and simulation models) were compared with the outcome of the experimental study.
Technical Paper

SMASH – Program for Car Accident Simulation

2000-03-06
2000-01-0848
In the paper SMASH - a computer program for road accident simulation is presented. Besides the logic of the program the models of vehicle, tire and crash itself are analyzed briefly. Data and diagrams showing the comparison between SMASH results and actual tests data are presented.
Technical Paper

Tackling Three Critical Issues of Transportation: Environment, Safety and Congestion Via Semi-autonomous Platooning

2014-03-24
2014-01-2007
In recent years, platooning emerged as a realistic configuration for semi-autonomous driving. In the SARTRE project, simulation and physical tests were performed to validate the platooning system not only in testing facilities but also in conventional highways. Five vehicles were adapted with autonomous driving systems to have platooning functionalities, enabling to perform platoon tests and assess the feasibility, safety and benefits. Although the tested system was in a prototype, it demonstrated sturdiness and good functionality, allowing performing conventional road tests. First of all the fuel consumption decreased up to 16% in some configurations and different gaps between the vehicles were tested in order to establish the most suitable for platooning in terms of safety and economy. Additionally, the platooning technology enables a new level of safety in highways. Around 85% of the accident causation is the human factor.
Technical Paper

Driver Perception of Lateral Collision Threats

2020-04-14
2020-01-1198
Immediate collision hazards pose obvious threats to approaching drivers and therefore provoke emergency evasive responses. When the hazard is a vehicle intruding into the lane ahead, how its movement characteristics influence an approaching driver’s response is not well understood. This study examined the relationship between intruding vehicle motion and hazard perception. Seventeen subjects viewed first-person perspective recordings of a simulated vehicle travelling down a two-lane roadway containing several intersections with stop-controlled minor roads. Stopped vehicles were located at approximately half of the minor road intersections. Throughout the study, some vehicles (termed ‘intruders’) accelerated into the subject’s lane of travel at 1 of 6 pre-determined acceleration rates. Subjects were instructed to ‘brake’ their vehicle by pressing the space bar on a keyboard as soon as they perceived that a collision was imminent.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into C-NCAP AEB System Assessment Protocol

2017-09-23
2017-01-2009
In order to speed up the development of vehicle active safety technology in China, C-NCAP plans to add AEB and AEB VRU system as assessment items in 2018. With the purpose of studying the assessment protocol of AEB system, we have carried out 400,000 km road information collection and then we acquired the statistics of the operation conditions of dangerous situations. Combined with the traffic accident data collected by CIDAS, we found that the dangerous situations that we usually met were mainly three types, that was CCRs, CCRm and CCRb. Based on what we mentioned above, we analyzed the three kinds of working conditions and gave the corresponding evaluation method. In addition, combined with the actual situation of China, we added two tests of error function. And then we took the actual road experiment of many models of vehicles.
Technical Paper

Determination of Vehicle Velocities and Collision Location by Means of Monte Carlo Simulation Method

2006-04-03
2006-01-0907
In road accident analysis the problem of uncertainty of calculation results becomes essential particularly when modification of input values within the adopted ranges leads to diametric change of the answer to the question posed by the court of justice (e.g. “collision from the right-hand side of the center line” – “collision from the left-hand side of the center line”, or “the accident could have been avoided” – “the accident could not be avoided”). The aim of the paper was to present a method of collision reconstruction calculation using the principle of conservation of momentum, the principle of energy conservation, and the principle of kinetic energy and work equivalence (energy balance) (Marquard), taking into consideration Monte Carlo simulation method. The applicability of the method in determination of distribution function for vehicle collision velocities was proved and, what is more important, its practical uselessness in determination of collision location.
Journal Article

Effects of Situational Urgency on the Perception and Response Time to Lateral Collision Hazards

2021-04-06
2021-01-0857
Situational urgency influences the perception and response time (PRT) interval of drivers confronting emergency collision hazards. However, a gap exists in our understanding of the movement characteristics of a collision hazard that directly contribute to a driver’s decision to initiate an evasive response. The aim of this experiment is to examine how the movement characteristics of intruding vehicles affect an oncoming driver’s PRT interval. Fourteen subjects viewed first-person perspective recordings of a simulated vehicle travelling along a two-lane roadway. Collision hazards were introduced when stopped vehicles positioned at intersecting roadways unexpectedly intruded into the subject’s path. Subjects were instructed to ‘brake’ their vehicle by pressing a keyboard space bar when they perceived that evasive actions were required to avoid a collision.
Technical Paper

Estimating Benefits of LDW Systems Applied to Cross-Centerline Crashes

2018-04-03
2018-01-0512
Objective: Opposite-direction crashes can be extremely severe because opposing vehicles often have high relative speeds. The most common opposite direction crash scenario occurs when a driver departs their lane driving over the centerline and impacts a vehicle traveling in the opposite direction. This cross-centerline crash mode accounts for only 4% of all non-junction non-interchange crashes but 25% of serious injury crashes of the same type. One potential solution to this problem is the Lane Departure Warning (LDW) system which can monitor the position of the vehicle and provide a warning to the driver if they detect the vehicle is moving out of the lane. The objective of this study was to determine the potential benefits of deploying LDW systems fleet-wide for avoidance of cross-centerline crashes. Methods: In order to estimate the potential benefits of LDW for reduction of cross-centerline crashes, a comprehensive crash simulation model was developed.
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