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Technical Paper

Accuracy and Sensitivity of Yaw Speed Analysis to Available Data

Accident reconstructionists rarely have complete data with which to determine vehicle speed, and so the true value must be bracketed within a range. Previous work has shown the effect of friction uncertainty in determining speed from tire marks left by a vehicle in yaw. The goal of the current study was to assess improvements in the accuracy of vehicle speed estimated from yaw marks using progressively more scene and vehicle information. Data for this analysis came from staged S-turn maneuvers that in some cases led to rollover of sport utility vehicles. Initial speeds were first calculated using the critical curve speed (CCS) formula on the yaw marks from the first portion of the S-maneuver. Then computer simulations were performed with progressively more input data: i) the complete tire marks from the whole S-maneuver, ii) measured vehicle mass, iii) measured suspension stiffness and damping, and iv) measured steering history.
Technical Paper

The Accident Research Unit Hannover as Example for Importance and Benefit of Existing In Depth Investigations

The In-Depth Investigations of the Accident Research Unit Hannover (Germany), which have been carried out since 1973 are described in the paper. The importance of the detailed analysis consists in the method, in the statistical approach and the continuous data collection over the years. The government as well as industrial manufacturers use this data. Since 1985 a statistical procedure including a mathematical weighting procedure has been applied. About 1000 cases per year are collected. In the paper, principal aspects in the technique of data collection, definitions of variables and possibilities of data usage are described. The limitations of in-depth investigations are discussed in principle, and demands for a worldwide level are pointed out.

Advances in Side Airbag Systems

Thanks to years of research and development by vehicle manufacturers, suppliers, legislation, and the entire safety community, the side airbag has become a critical safety device to reduce injury and save lives. This new collection of technical research highlights the progression of these essential safety features, providing a complete and thorough perspective through the analysis of both early patents and recent side airbag system developments. Advances in Side Airbag Systems begins with an introduction by editor Donald E. Struble, chronicling the progress made since the mid-1980s in offering improved side impact protection to the motoring public. Authored by leading experts in their respective fields, this book features a comprehensive collection of 26 landmark technical papers. Its scope includes not only thorax airbags, but other inflatable devices designed for side impacts and rollovers.

Crash Reconstruction Research

The science of crash reconstruction enables engineers to determine the most probable scenario for how and why traffic collisions occur. Ongoing research has continually enhanced crash reconstructionists' knowledge of the application of physical laws in this field. Crash Reconstruction Research: 20 Years of Progress (1988-2007) features 47 papers that have presented significant steps forward, focusing on the following areas within the field of crash reconstruction that have experienced major advances: Planar Impact Mechanics Stiffness Modeling Crash Pulse Analysis Structural Restitution Lateral Deformation and Override/Underride BEV v. Delta-V Rear and Side Impacts Pole Impacts Uncertainty Analysis Pedestrian Crashes Braking Performance

Recent Developments in Automotive Safety Technology

Automotive engineers have been working to improve vehicle safety ever since the first car rolleddown some pathway well over 100 years ago. Today, there are many new technologies being developedthat will improve the safety of future vehicles. Featuring the 69 best safety-related SAE technical papers of 2003, this book provides the most comprehensive information available on current and emerging developments in automotive safety. It gives readers a feel for the direction engineers are taking to reduce deaths and injuries of vehicle occupants as well as pedestrians. All of the papers selected for this book meet the criteria for inclusion in SAE Transactions--the definitive collection of the year's best technical research in automotive engineering technology.