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Technical Paper

PC-Crash and HVE, an Overview of Similarities and Differences

2001-03-05
2001-01-0505
HVE 1 and PC-Crash 2 have been the subject of numerous SAE papers. Both programs have been offered to reconstructionists for the purpose of analyzing vehicle accidents and presenting the resulting motions in 3D graphical form.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Occupant Simulation Through the Coupling of PC-Crash and MADYMO

1999-03-01
1999-01-0444
During recent years the accident simulation program PC-Crash was developed. This software simulates vehicle movement before, during and after the impact, using 3D vehicle and scene models. ...A new interface has been developed between MADYMO® and PC-Crash so that, after the reconstruction of an accident, only a few additional parameters regarding restraint system, seat and occupant must be defined. ...A new interface has been developed between MADYMO® and PC-Crash so that, after the reconstruction of an accident, only a few additional parameters regarding restraint system, seat and occupant must be defined. PC-Crash then creates all necessary input files for MADYMO® and starts the occupant simulation.
Technical Paper

Validation of a PC-Crash Multibody Sport Bike Motorcycle Model

2021-04-06
2021-01-0893
PC-Crash is an accident reconstruction program that allows the user to run simulations with multibody objects that collide or interact with 3D vehicle mesh models. ...The current motorcycle models in PC-Crash are limited to generic-type motorcycles. Furthermore, they are only globally scalable such that you cannot adjust length, width, or height independently. ...The testing results were compared to parameters calculated in the PC-Crash program. Results such as Delta-V, yaw rate and overall post impact trajectories of the motorcycle, rider, and movement of the target vehicle were compared.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Review and Extension of Two Decades of Research Related to PC-Crash Simulation Software

2018-04-03
2018-01-0523
PC-Crash is a vehicular accident simulation software that is widely used by the accident reconstruction community. ...The goal of this article is to review the prior literature that has addressed the capabilities of PC-Crash and its accuracy and reliability for various applications (planar collisions, rollovers, and human motion). ...In addition, this article aims to add additional analysis of the capabilities of PC-Crash for simulating planar collisions and rollovers. Simulation analysis of five planar collisions originally reported and analyzed by Bailey [2000] are reexamined.
Technical Paper

Application of the Monte Carlo Methods for Stability Analysis within the Accident Reconstruction Software PC-CRASH

2003-03-03
2003-01-0488
During recent years the accident simulation program PC-CRASH was developed, which allows simulating the vehicles movement before, during and after the impact. ...The first one serves as an alternative for the optimizer tool and is included in the current version of PC-Crash. It gives reasonable insight in the variation of certain parameters in reasonable calculation time.
Journal Article

Reconstructing Vehicle Dynamics from On-Board Event Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0632
These predictions were generated by directly integrating the VCH data and by using the VCH data as inputs to PC-Crash simulations. The predicted positions and headings were then compared to the actual position and heading data measured using differential GPS synchronized to the VCH data record.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Simulation and Sensor Development for Occupant Protection in Rollover Accidents

2000-11-01
2000-01-C038
Automotive occupant safety continues to evolve. At present this area has gathered a strong consumer interest which the vehicle manufacturers are tapping into with the introduction of many new safety technologies. Initially, individual passive devices and features such as seatbelts, knee- bolsters, structural crush zones, airbags etc., were developed for to help save lives and minimize injuries in accidents. Over the years, preventive measures such as improving visibility, headlights, windshield wipers, tire traction etc., were deployed to help reduce the probability of getting into an accident. With tremendous new research and improvements in electronics, we are at the stage of helping to actively avoid accidents in certain situations as well as providing increased protection to vehicle occupants and pedestrians.
Technical Paper

Essential Considerations in Delta-V Determination

2001-10-01
2001-01-3165
While Delta-V has been one of the most used indicators of accident severity for vehicle occupants, its actual determination remains a mystery to many who refer to it and use it. Delta-V is a term of art applied to a rapid change in vehicle velocity caused by impact forces during a collision. The Delta-V is associated with the high decelerations, which cause it and are applied to the occupants through restraint systems and collisions with the interior of the vehicle. This paper will serve as a primer for those new to the subject and a review for those who are familiar with the subject. Previous works by the authors will be referenced and other pertinent literature and data sources will be discussed. The analytical methods and test data used to calculate Delta-V will be presented and the relationship between Delta-V and other measures of impact severity, such as Barrier Equivalent Velocity and Energy Equivalent Speed will be discussed. The use of air bag sensor data will be included.
Technical Paper

Comparisons of Devices for Measuring Acceleration vs. Time in Braking Tests

2008-04-14
2008-01-0180
The coefficient of friction between a vehicle's tires and the roadway is a key parameter in any accident reconstruction. With the proliferation of vehicle dynamics software, it is often important to have more details regarding the tires interaction with the road than simply the average deceleration rate. Devices which can provide the peak friction as the braking develops, along with the average deceleration during the fully developed sliding phase, are necessary. There are now products widely available to the accident reconstruction market which provides these parameters as well as detailed acceleration vs. time curves. The following products capable of providing these results were tested: Accelerex, Vericom VC3000, and two general purpose accelerometers made by Silicon Designs and Dimension Engineering. Tests were conducted on wet and dry asphalt surfaces using a variety of passenger vehicles and transit buses which confirmed the agreement between these devices.
Technical Paper

Accuracy and Sensitivity of Yaw Speed Analysis to Available Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0417
Accident reconstructionists rarely have complete data with which to determine vehicle speed, and so the true value must be bracketed within a range. Previous work has shown the effect of friction uncertainty in determining speed from tire marks left by a vehicle in yaw. The goal of the current study was to assess improvements in the accuracy of vehicle speed estimated from yaw marks using progressively more scene and vehicle information. Data for this analysis came from staged S-turn maneuvers that in some cases led to rollover of sport utility vehicles. Initial speeds were first calculated using the critical curve speed (CCS) formula on the yaw marks from the first portion of the S-maneuver. Then computer simulations were performed with progressively more input data: i) the complete tire marks from the whole S-maneuver, ii) measured vehicle mass, iii) measured suspension stiffness and damping, and iv) measured steering history.
Technical Paper

Empirical Testing of Vehicular Rotational Motion

2012-04-16
2012-01-0602
Vehicles often rotate during traffic collisions due to impact forces or excessive steering maneuvers. In analyzing these situations, accident reconstructionists need to apply accurate deceleration rates for vehicles that are both rotating and translating to a final resting position. Determining a proper rate of deceleration is a challenging but critical step in calculating energy or momentum-based solutions for analytical purposes. In this research, multiple empirical tests were performed using an instrumented vehicle that was subjected to induced rotational maneuvers. A Ford Crown Victoria passenger car was equipped with a modified brake system where selected wheels could be isolated. The tests were performed on a dry asphalt surface at speeds of approximately 50 mph. In each of the tests, the vehicle rotated approximately 180 degrees with the wheels on one side being completely locked.
Technical Paper

Effectiveness of Side-Airbags for Front Struckside Belted Car Occupants in Lateral Impact Conditions - An In-Depth-Analysis by GIDAS1

2007-04-16
2007-01-1157
Accident documentations on GIDAS (German In-Depth-Accident Study) from 1999 to 2005 are used for this study dealing with the effectiveness of the side airbag protection for car occupants. An analysis of real world accidents was carried out by ARU-MUH (Accident Research Unit - Medical University Hannover). The data were collected based on the spot documentation in time after an accident event. Based on the accident sampling process, the results of this study are representative for the German traffic accident situation. In order to determine the influence and the effectiveness of airbags, only those accident configurations with comparable conditions on impact direction are used for the study, therefore only cases with impact to the compartment, a delta-v-range 5 to 50 km/h and for struckside seated belted occupants were selected.
Technical Paper

The Accident Research Unit Hannover as Example for Importance and Benefit of Existing In Depth Investigations

1994-03-01
940712
The In-Depth Investigations of the Accident Research Unit Hannover (Germany), which have been carried out since 1973 are described in the paper. The importance of the detailed analysis consists in the method, in the statistical approach and the continuous data collection over the years. The government as well as industrial manufacturers use this data. Since 1985 a statistical procedure including a mathematical weighting procedure has been applied. About 1000 cases per year are collected. In the paper, principal aspects in the technique of data collection, definitions of variables and possibilities of data usage are described. The limitations of in-depth investigations are discussed in principle, and demands for a worldwide level are pointed out.
Technical Paper

Documenting Scientific Visualizations and Computer Animations Used in Collision Reconstruction Presentations

1998-02-23
980018
Scientific visualizations and computer animations are frequently presented to show the results of simulation models or the opinions of a reconstructionist. In these cases it is important to properly document the graphical images being presented. Proper documentation depends somewhat on the methodologies used to produce the images, but every scientific visualization, computer animation, and computer generated image should be documented sufficiently to allow others to duplicate the images. There are also some basic data that should accompany any computer generated images that will reveal the basis of the motion for all primary objects being depicted. This paper presents some basic definitions and outlines the data that is required to document scientific visualizations and computer animations.
Technical Paper

RICSAC-97 A Reevaluation of the Reference Set of Full Scale Crash Tests

1997-02-24
970961
Research performed in the 1970's revealed significant limitations in the available documentation of vehicle crush information and trajectory spinout information. As a result a series of full-scale crash tests were performed which became known as the Research Input for Computer Simulation of Automobile Collisions (RICSAC) crash tests. Previous research using the RICSAC test results, particularly in relation to the validation of accident reconstruction computer programs, has varied widely in acceptance, interpretation and presentation of the RICSAC test results. This paper presents a detailed review and decipherment in useable form of the original 12 crash tests that were performed within the RICSAC program. A new method of analyzing accelerometer data from arbitrary sensor positions, on the basis of discrete measures of the vehicle responses rather than complete time-histories, is defined.
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