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Technical Paper

Effective Numerical Simulation Tool for Real-World Rollover Accidents by Combining PC-Crash and FEA

2007-04-16
2007-01-1773
In this work, we focused on the trip-over type, which occurs most frequently, and performed simulations to reproduce real-world rollover accidents by combining PC-Crash and FEA. At first, using a simplified full car model, sufficient conditions, such as additional velocity, required for a curb trip-over accident to occur, were derived from energy balance concept based on the same principle as critical sliding velocity (CSV) criterion. ...Based on rigid body dynamics, PC-Crash software was chosen to make an accident reconstruction analysis of some selected cases chosen from an accident database (NASS-CDS). ...The output of this PC-crash simulation was then used as the initial input conditions (i.e., speed, deceleration, etc.) of a detailed finite element analysis.
Technical Paper

Soil Trip Rollover Simulation and Occupant Kinematics in Real World Accident

2007-08-05
2007-01-3680
In this work, we focused on the trip-over type, which occurs most frequently, and performed simulations to reproduce real-world rollover accidents by combining PC-Crash and FEA. Soil trip-over simulation was carried out based on real world accidents. Based on rigid body dynamics, PC-Crash software was chosen to make an accident reconstruction analysis of some selected cases chosen from an accident database (NASS-CDS). ...Based on rigid body dynamics, PC-Crash software was chosen to make an accident reconstruction analysis of some selected cases chosen from an accident database (NASS-CDS). ...The output of this PC-crash simulation was then used as the initial input conditions (i.e., speed, deceleration, etc.) of a detailed finite element analysis.
Technical Paper

Energy and Major Diversion in Accident Reconstruction

1996-02-01
960888
Special methods of momentum-based accident reconstruction often are required when path diversions are major, that is, in excess of about 45°. An energy-based component is well known to be required for the maximal path diversion of 180″; with parallel unknowns the two momentum equations become identical, so that an independent equation based on the observed damage is required. Also-as we demonstrated in a previous paper-in intersection impacts, even with modest path diversions, momentum loss to earth during impact, while classically neglected, appreciably affects the inferred momentum of approach. The present study shows further that, with major diversion and brief travel to rest, conventional neglect of travel during impact may greatly distort the assigned post-impact travel direction and/or distance and, in consequence, the momentum solution.
Technical Paper

Design and Evaluation of an Affordable Seatbelt Retrofit for Motor Coach Occupant Safety

2017-01-10
2017-26-0018
Prevention of passenger ejection from motor coach seats in the case of rollover and frontal crashes is critical for minimizing fatalities and injuries. This paper proposes a novel concept of affordably retrofitting 3-point seatbelts to protect passengers during these significant crash scenarios. Currently, the available options involve replacement of either the entire fleet, which takes time to avoid extremely high costs, or all seats with new seats that have seatbelts which is still expensive. Alternatively, this paper presents the development of an innovative product that can be installed in seat belt-ready bus structures at a fraction of the cost. The efficacy of the design is studied using finite element analysis (FEA) to meet Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 210 standards for conditions involved in frontal and side impacts.
Technical Paper

Effectiveness of Side-Airbags for Front Struckside Belted Car Occupants in Lateral Impact Conditions - An In-Depth-Analysis by GIDAS1

2007-04-16
2007-01-1157
Accident documentations on GIDAS (German In-Depth-Accident Study) from 1999 to 2005 are used for this study dealing with the effectiveness of the side airbag protection for car occupants. An analysis of real world accidents was carried out by ARU-MUH (Accident Research Unit - Medical University Hannover). The data were collected based on the spot documentation in time after an accident event. Based on the accident sampling process, the results of this study are representative for the German traffic accident situation. In order to determine the influence and the effectiveness of airbags, only those accident configurations with comparable conditions on impact direction are used for the study, therefore only cases with impact to the compartment, a delta-v-range 5 to 50 km/h and for struckside seated belted occupants were selected.
Technical Paper

The CREST project accident data base

2001-06-04
2001-06-0042
The protection of children in cars is improving with the increasing use of better designed restraint systems. Indeed, when children are correctly restrained in appropriate child restraint systems (CRS) they are sufficiently well protected in moderate frontal impacts. However, the levels of protection afforded in severe frontal impacts and lateral crashes has needed further attention. The CREST project, funded by the European Commission, was initiated to develop the knowledge on the kinematics behavior and tolerances of children involved in car crashes. The final aim of the project is to propose enhanced test procedures for evaluating the effectiveness of child restraint systems (CRS). The method used in this project was to collect data from accident investigations and from reconstructed crashes in order to determine the physical parameters (measured on dummies) which correspond to various injury mechanisms, and is described in ESV 2001 - paper n°294.
Book

Advances in Side Airbag Systems

2005-01-15
Thanks to years of research and development by vehicle manufacturers, suppliers, legislation, and the entire safety community, the side airbag has become a critical safety device to reduce injury and save lives. This new collection of technical research highlights the progression of these essential safety features, providing a complete and thorough perspective through the analysis of both early patents and recent side airbag system developments. Advances in Side Airbag Systems begins with an introduction by editor Donald E. Struble, chronicling the progress made since the mid-1980s in offering improved side impact protection to the motoring public. Authored by leading experts in their respective fields, this book features a comprehensive collection of 26 landmark technical papers. Its scope includes not only thorax airbags, but other inflatable devices designed for side impacts and rollovers.
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