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Technical Paper

A New Approach to Occupant Simulation Through the Coupling of PC-Crash and MADYMO

1999-03-01
1999-01-0444
During recent years the accident simulation program PC-Crash was developed. This software simulates vehicle movement before, during and after the impact, using 3D vehicle and scene models. ...A new interface has been developed between MADYMO® and PC-Crash so that, after the reconstruction of an accident, only a few additional parameters regarding restraint system, seat and occupant must be defined. ...A new interface has been developed between MADYMO® and PC-Crash so that, after the reconstruction of an accident, only a few additional parameters regarding restraint system, seat and occupant must be defined. PC-Crash then creates all necessary input files for MADYMO® and starts the occupant simulation.
Technical Paper

Validation of the Coupled PC-CRASH - MADYMO Occupant Simulation Model

2000-03-06
2000-01-0471
During recent years the accident simulation program PCCRASH was developed, which allows to simulate the vehicles movement before, during and after the impact. ...Within SAE 1999-01-0444 a new coupling interface of PC-CRASH and the software MADYMO, developed by TNO in the Netherlands was published. During last year's publication only few validation cases, mainly related to rear end impacts could be demonstrated. ...One major emphasis was set on the influence of the crash pulse, which cannot be derived in PC-CRASH. In this way the paper demonstrates the possibilities as well as the limitations of the numerical model.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Review and Extension of Two Decades of Research Related to PC-Crash Simulation Software

2018-04-03
2018-01-0523
PC-Crash is a vehicular accident simulation software that is widely used by the accident reconstruction community. ...The goal of this article is to review the prior literature that has addressed the capabilities of PC-Crash and its accuracy and reliability for various applications (planar collisions, rollovers, and human motion). ...In addition, this article aims to add additional analysis of the capabilities of PC-Crash for simulating planar collisions and rollovers. Simulation analysis of five planar collisions originally reported and analyzed by Bailey [2000] are reexamined.
Technical Paper

Soil Trip Rollover Simulation and Occupant Kinematics in Real World Accident

2007-08-05
2007-01-3680
In this work, we focused on the trip-over type, which occurs most frequently, and performed simulations to reproduce real-world rollover accidents by combining PC-Crash and FEA. Soil trip-over simulation was carried out based on real world accidents. Based on rigid body dynamics, PC-Crash software was chosen to make an accident reconstruction analysis of some selected cases chosen from an accident database (NASS-CDS). ...Based on rigid body dynamics, PC-Crash software was chosen to make an accident reconstruction analysis of some selected cases chosen from an accident database (NASS-CDS). ...The output of this PC-crash simulation was then used as the initial input conditions (i.e., speed, deceleration, etc.) of a detailed finite element analysis.
Journal Article

Reconstructing Vehicle Dynamics from On-Board Event Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0632
These predictions were generated by directly integrating the VCH data and by using the VCH data as inputs to PC-Crash simulations. The predicted positions and headings were then compared to the actual position and heading data measured using differential GPS synchronized to the VCH data record.
Technical Paper

Field Effectiveness Calculation of Integrated Safety Systems

2011-04-12
2011-01-1101
The vehicle dynamics of all scenarios from the database will be simulated in PC-Crash, an accident-reconstruction software. Since the brake assist is obligatory from 2012 on, the system and its effect on each single accident scenario will be modeled.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Testing of a Suite of Field Relevant Rollovers

2004-03-08
2004-01-0335
Automotive rollover is a complex mechanical phenomenon. In order to understand the mechanism of rollover and develop any potential countermeasures for occupant protection, efficient and repeatable laboratory tests are necessary. However, these tests are not well understood and are still an active area of research interest. It is not always easy or intuitive to estimate the necessary initial and boundary conditions for such tests to assure repeatability. This task can be even more challenging when rollover is a second or third event (e.g. frontal impact followed by a rollover). In addition, often vehicle and occupant kinematics need to be estimated a-priori, first for the safe operation of the crew and equipment safety, and second for capturing and recording the event. It is important to achieve the required vehicle kinematics in an efficient manner and thus reduce repetitive tests. Mathematical modeling of the phenomenon can greatly assist in understanding such kinematics.
Standard

Rollover Testing Methods

2021-10-29
CURRENT
J2926_202110
The scope of this document is to provide an overview of the techniques found in the published literature for rollover testing and rollover crashworthiness evaluation at the vehicle and component levels. It is not a comprehensive literature review, but rather illustrates the techniques that are in use or have been used to evaluate rollover crashworthiness-related issues.
Technical Paper

Mobility in mining: Issues for road safety improvement

2021-03-26
2020-36-0125
The increase of mining activities in the northern regions of Chile has brought about a new environment in terms of mobility to those areas where this industry has moved forward. This change has not only affected road traffic accidents on public roads of the surrounding mines, but also the inner organization of the mining companies, which must fulfill strict regulations, achieving the highest levels of safety. Given this situation, the current road traffic accidentology with respect to the northern regions of Chile has been analyzed in this paper. The results of the analysis have shown the relevant weight of the human factor and the state of the infrastructure related to the number of road fatalities. Thus, this paper provides solutions to combine the existing driver-centered technologies together with GPS systems that can track the movement of several vehicles and the design of safety berms in mine haul roads to mitigate the number of fatalities associated with mining activity.
Technical Paper

Methods of Occupant Kinematics Analysis in Automobile Crashes

2002-03-04
2002-01-0536
Understanding occupant kinematics is an important part of accident reconstruction, particularly with respect to injury causation. Injuries are generally sustained as the occupant interacts with the vehicle interior surfaces and is rapidly accelerated to the struck component's post-impact velocity. This paper describes some methods for assessing occupant kinematics in a collision, and discusses their limitations. A useful technique is presented which is based on free-body analysis and can be used to establish an occupant's path of motion relative to the vehicle, locate the point of occupant contact, and determine the occupant's velocity relative to that contact location.
Technical Paper

RASSI: A Systematic Approach for On-site Crash Investigations and In-depth Accident Data Collection in India

2013-01-09
2013-26-0031
India's growing trend of serious road accidents has created an urgent need to understand the primary factors involved in these crashes and in the resulting severe injuries and fatalities. In order to improve the safety of highways and automobiles for all road users, a consortium of safety researchers and vehicle manufacturers has come together to collect first-hand, detailed and consistent crash and injury data for traffic accidents on Indian roads. After three years of pilot studies, a methodology, called Road Accident Sampling System - India (RASSI), has been developed for conducting on-site crash investigations and collecting in-depth accident data on road accidents in India. The processes developed under RASSI to investigate onsite crashes and collect quality accident data suitable for detailed analysis are described. The program includes all types of traffic accidents with injury outcomes.
Technical Paper

Near and Far-Side Adult Front Passenger Kinematics in a Vehicle Rollover

2001-03-05
2001-01-0176
In this study, U.S. accident data was analyzed to determine interior contacts and injuries for front-seated occupants in rollovers. The injury distribution for belted and unbelted, non-ejected drivers and right front passengers (RFP) was assessed for single-event accidents where the leading side of the vehicle rollover was either on the driver or passenger door. Drivers in a roll-left and RFP in roll-right rollovers were defined as near-side occupants, while drivers in roll-right and RFP in roll-left rollovers were defined as far-side occupants. Serious injuries (AIS 3+) were most common to the head and thorax for both the near and far-side occupants. However, serious spinal injuries were more frequent for the far-side occupants, where the source was most often coded as roof, windshield and interior.
Technical Paper

Occupant Friction Coefficients on Various Combinations of Seat and Clothing

2009-06-11
2009-01-1672
This paper reports on tests conducted to determine static and dynamic coefficients of friction between occupant clothing and automotive seat upholstery materials. Multiple materials were used for both the occupants clothing and the seat upholstery to examine friction variations with various material combinations. A fixture was fabricated to hold an automotive seat stationary while a dummy was pulled forward off of the seat. The forces required to pull the dummy were recorded for the various upholstery and clothing materials and the coefficients of friction were determined.
Technical Paper

Real-world car accident reconstruction methods for crash avoidance system research

2000-06-12
2000-05-0221
Development of crash avoidance systems and active safety systems must not be only based on experimental knowledge. The goal is to provide an efficient answer to still unsolved severe real-world car crashes which occur despite enhanced passive safety devices. This requires to know precisely the pre-crash conditions during about 3 to 10 seconds before impact. The paper describes the multidisciplinary systemic approach leading to the comprehensive methodology used in accident reconstruction in order to determine the best scenario, and to assess initial car speeds, paths and events in the different phases of the accident. This has already been carried out for about 400 car crashes with car occupant injuries (including 6% fatal and 10% severely injured). The necessity of collecting data on the spot of the crash scene is highlighted. Three well-trained investigators are involved.
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