Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

The Trailer Simulation Model of PC-CRASH

1998-02-23
980372
The program PC-CRASH was developed for the reconstruction of vehicle accidents and considers pre-impact, collision and post-impact phases. ...The present paper describes the physical and mathematical model which was added recently to PC-CRASH in order to enable the simulation of the dynamic behavior of articulated vehicles (with both single and double axle semi-trailers and with steered trailers).
Technical Paper

Validation of a PC-Crash Multibody Sport Bike Motorcycle Model

2021-04-06
2021-01-0893
PC-Crash is an accident reconstruction program allowing the user to perform simulations with multibody objects that collide or interact with 3D vehicle mesh models. ...The current motorcycle models in PC-Crash are generic and do not resemble a sport bike type motorcycle. They are only globally scalable such that you cannot adjust length, width, or height independently. ...The test results were compared to parameters calculated in PC-Crash. Results such as Delta-V, yaw rate and overall post impact trajectories of the motorcycle, rider and movement of the target vehicle were compared to the data from the instrumented test vehicles.
Technical Paper

EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PEDESTRIAN PROTECTION SYSTEMS THROUGH IN-DEPTH ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION, RECONSTRUCTION AND SIMULATION

2009-10-06
2009-36-0398
All of them are analysed in-depth and reconstructed with PC-Crash. The effects of the frontal structure of the vehicles and several active systems, such as BAS and Pedestrian Detection Systems, are evaluated. ...The paper includes the description of the methodology followed for a sample of approximately 140 pedestrian urban accidents in three cities in Spain (Madrid, Barcelona and Zaragoza) and the corresponding reconstructions done with PC-Crash. Then, a methodology to simulate the passive and active improvements (including pedestrian friendly structure, BAS and pedestrian detection system) is defined and applied to all the sampled accidents.
Technical Paper

Mobility in mining: Issues for road safety improvement

2021-03-26
2020-36-0125
The increase of mining activities in the northern regions of Chile has brought about a new environment in terms of mobility to those areas where this industry has moved forward. This change has not only affected road traffic accidents on public roads of the surrounding mines, but also the inner organization of the mining companies, which must fulfill strict regulations, achieving the highest levels of safety. Given this situation, the current road traffic accidentology with respect to the northern regions of Chile has been analyzed in this paper. The results of the analysis have shown the relevant weight of the human factor and the state of the infrastructure related to the number of road fatalities. Thus, this paper provides solutions to combine the existing driver-centered technologies together with GPS systems that can track the movement of several vehicles and the design of safety berms in mine haul roads to mitigate the number of fatalities associated with mining activity.
Technical Paper

RASSI: A Systematic Approach for On-site Crash Investigations and In-depth Accident Data Collection in India

2013-01-09
2013-26-0031
India's growing trend of serious road accidents has created an urgent need to understand the primary factors involved in these crashes and in the resulting severe injuries and fatalities. In order to improve the safety of highways and automobiles for all road users, a consortium of safety researchers and vehicle manufacturers has come together to collect first-hand, detailed and consistent crash and injury data for traffic accidents on Indian roads. After three years of pilot studies, a methodology, called Road Accident Sampling System - India (RASSI), has been developed for conducting on-site crash investigations and collecting in-depth accident data on road accidents in India. The processes developed under RASSI to investigate onsite crashes and collect quality accident data suitable for detailed analysis are described. The program includes all types of traffic accidents with injury outcomes.
Technical Paper

Rollover Crash Sensing and Safety Overview

2004-03-08
2004-01-0342
This paper provides an overview of rollover crash safety, including field crash statistics, pre- and rollover dynamics, test procedures and dummy responses as well as a bibliography of pertinent literature. Based on the 2001 Traffic Safety Facts published by NHTSA, rollovers account for 10.5% of the first harmful events in fatal crashes; but, 19.5% of vehicles in fatal crashes had a rollover in the impact sequence. Based on an analysis of the 1993-2001 NASS for non-ejected occupants, 10.5% of occupants are exposed to rollovers, but these occupants experience a high proportion of AIS 3-6 injury (16.1% for belted and 23.9% for unbelted occupants). The head and thorax are the most seriously injured body regions in rollovers. This paper also describes a research program aimed at defining rollover sensing requirements to activate belt pretensioners, roof-rail airbags and convertible pop-up rollbars.
Technical Paper

ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF SEAT BELTS IN BUSES BASED ON RECENT ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN SPAIN

2001-06-04
2001-06-0019
The most important topic in the field of passive safety of buses and coaches nowadays is the future compulsory use of seat belts. The objective of the study performed by IDIADA AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY SA and CENTRO ZARAGOZA is to make an important contribution to the existing technical data about this subject. This paper is based on the in-depth analysis of recent road traffic accidents where buses were involved. The first step is the accident reconstruction. A complete injury report including description and causes of occupant injuries is the basis for the correlation of a computer simulation model. Experience in the development of coach seats equipped with seat belts enables the preparation of a comparative model. The hypothesis that the consequences of the accident could have been less severe if the occupants of the bus had worn a seat belt can be evaluated. The conclusions will help the legislators make the right decision.
Book

Collision Reconstruction Methodologies Volume 6A: Rollover Accident Reconstruction

2018-11-02
The last ten years have seen explosive growth in the technology available to the collision analyst, changing the way reconstruction is practiced in fundamental ways. The greatest technological advances for the crash reconstruction community have come in the realms of photogrammetry and digital media analysis. The widespread use of scanning technology has facilitated the implementation of powerful new tools to digitize forensic data, create 3D models and visualize and analyze crash vehicles and environments. The introduction of unmanned aerial systems and standardization of crash data recorders to the crash reconstruction community have enhanced the ability of a crash analyst to visualize and model the components of a crash reconstruction. Because of the technological changes occurring in the industry, many SAE papers have been written to address the validation and use of new tools for collision reconstruction.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Volvo’s Pedestrian Detection System Based on Selected Real-Life Fatal Pedestrian Accidents

2016-04-05
2016-01-1450
The objective of this work is to test the potential benefit of active pedestrian protection systems. The tests are based on real fatal accidents with passenger cars that were not equipped with active safety systems. Tests have been conducted in order to evaluate what the real benefit of the active safety system would be, and not to gain only a methodological prediction. The testing procedure was the first independent testing in the world which was based on real fatal pedestrian accidents. The aim of the tests is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Volvo pedestrian detection system. The in-depth accident database ZEDATU contains about 300 fatal pedestrian traffic accidents in urban areas. Eighteen cases of pedestrians hit by the front end of a passenger vehicle were extracted from this database. Cases covering an average traffic scenario have been reconstructed to obtain detailed model situations for testing.
Technical Paper

Comparisons of Devices for Measuring Acceleration vs. Time in Braking Tests

2008-04-14
2008-01-0180
The coefficient of friction between a vehicle's tires and the roadway is a key parameter in any accident reconstruction. With the proliferation of vehicle dynamics software, it is often important to have more details regarding the tires interaction with the road than simply the average deceleration rate. Devices which can provide the peak friction as the braking develops, along with the average deceleration during the fully developed sliding phase, are necessary. There are now products widely available to the accident reconstruction market which provides these parameters as well as detailed acceleration vs. time curves. The following products capable of providing these results were tested: Accelerex, Vericom VC3000, and two general purpose accelerometers made by Silicon Designs and Dimension Engineering. Tests were conducted on wet and dry asphalt surfaces using a variety of passenger vehicles and transit buses which confirmed the agreement between these devices.
Technical Paper

A Pilot Study at National Highway-8 for On-Site Crash Data Collection and In-Depth Investigation in India

2017-01-10
2017-26-0001
The importance of on-site, in-depth accident research studies has been recognized internationally especially in developed countries. In order to address problems related to road safety, it is important to understand the epidemiology and causation of crashes. For this an in-depth investigation of the crash site, vehicles involved and injury details is required. Detailed crash information helps in analysing the events leading to crash and developing safety measures and/or intervention to reduce crashes. In order to pilot such an activity in India, an in-depth accident data collection activity had been carried out on national highway connecting Delhi to Jaipur (NH-8) for a duration of over a year by a joint team of IIT-Delhi and NATRiP. A total of 1220 road traffic accidents (RTA) notifications were received by the team, of which 186 cases were attended and detailed data was collected in a pre-decided format.
Book

Collision Reconstruction Methodologies Volume 6C: Rollover Accident Reconstruction

2018-11-02
The last ten years have seen explosive growth in the technology available to the collision analyst, changing the way reconstruction is practiced in fundamental ways. The greatest technological advances for the crash reconstruction community have come in the realms of photogrammetry and digital media analysis. The widespread use of scanning technology has facilitated the implementation of powerful new tools to digitize forensic data, create 3D models and visualize and analyze crash vehicles and environments. The introduction of unmanned aerial systems and standardization of crash data recorders to the crash reconstruction community have enhanced the ability of a crash analyst to visualize and model the components of a crash reconstruction. Because of the technological changes occurring in the industry, many SAE papers have been written to address the validation and use of new tools for collision reconstruction.
Technical Paper

The Accident Research Unit Hannover as Example for Importance and Benefit of Existing In Depth Investigations

1994-03-01
940712
The In-Depth Investigations of the Accident Research Unit Hannover (Germany), which have been carried out since 1973 are described in the paper. The importance of the detailed analysis consists in the method, in the statistical approach and the continuous data collection over the years. The government as well as industrial manufacturers use this data. Since 1985 a statistical procedure including a mathematical weighting procedure has been applied. About 1000 cases per year are collected. In the paper, principal aspects in the technique of data collection, definitions of variables and possibilities of data usage are described. The limitations of in-depth investigations are discussed in principle, and demands for a worldwide level are pointed out.
Technical Paper

Residual Injury Situation and Accident Characteristics of Severe Motorcycle Accidents

2019-04-02
2019-01-0638
The total number of persons severely and fatally injured in road traffic accidents has reduced considerably in recent decades. However, the number of motorcyclists involved in accidents has not reduced to the same extent, and some countries have even recorded an increase. The aim of this study is to analyse the circumstances of motorcycle accidents in Germany involving vehicles with a cubic capacity of over 125 cm3 with particular reference to severely or fatally injured riders. An analysis is to be made of the characteristics and patterns of injuries suffered by the most severely injured motorcyclists and proposals developed for injury prevention. The study included accident data from 464 motorcycle accidents collected in Hanover and Dresden between 2010 and 2015 by an academic research team in the course of the GIDAS project (German In-Depth Accident Study). This data represents a statistically representative sample from real accidents occurring in Germany.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into C-NCAP AEB System Assessment Protocol

2017-09-23
2017-01-2009
In order to speed up the development of vehicle active safety technology in China, C-NCAP plans to add AEB and AEB VRU system as assessment items in 2018. With the purpose of studying the assessment protocol of AEB system, we have carried out 400,000 km road information collection and then we acquired the statistics of the operation conditions of dangerous situations. Combined with the traffic accident data collected by CIDAS, we found that the dangerous situations that we usually met were mainly three types, that was CCRs, CCRm and CCRb. Based on what we mentioned above, we analyzed the three kinds of working conditions and gave the corresponding evaluation method. In addition, combined with the actual situation of China, we added two tests of error function. And then we took the actual road experiment of many models of vehicles.
Technical Paper

Computer Simulation of Steer-Induced Rollover Events Via SIMON

2011-04-12
2011-01-1122
This study examines through computer simulation the reconstruction of on-road vehicle rollover accidents induced by a driver steering maneuver. The three-dimensional vehicle dynamics software package SIMON is used to model a set of four test vehicles as six degree-of-freedom sprung masses with up to five degrees-of-freedom for each unsprung mass. The performance of the simulator's physics model, in the context of accident reconstruction, is evaluated through correlation with full-scale vehicle rollover tests. Of specific interest to this study was simulation of the trip phase of the vehicle's motion. The correlation parameters include vehicle trajectory, speed, heading angle, yaw rate, roll angle, roll rate and lateral acceleration. SIMON's capacity to accurately model the physics of a test vehicle's suspension and tire kinetics in the pre-trip and trip phases of motion is evaluated by modeling a set of four instrumented full-scale tests of steering-induced rollovers.
Journal Article

A Bayesian Approach to Cross-Validation in Pedestrian Accident Reconstruction

2011-04-12
2011-01-0290
In statistical modeling, cross-validation refers to the practice of fitting a model with part of the available data, and then using predictions of the unused data to test and improve the fitted model. In accident reconstruction, cross-validation is possible when two different measurements can be used to estimate the same accident feature, such as when measured skidmark length and pedestrian throw distance each provide an estimate of impact speed. In this case a Bayesian cross-validation can be carried out by (1) using one measurement and Bayes theorem to compute a posterior distribution for the impact speed, (2) using this posterior distribution to compute a predictive distribution for the second measurement, and then (3) comparing the actual second measurement to this predictive distribution. An actual measurement falling in an extreme tail of the predictive distribution suggests a weakness in the assumptions governing the reconstruction.
Journal Article

Injury Rates for Older and Younger Belted Drivers in Traffic Accidents

2012-04-16
2012-01-0573
This paper describes the correlation of a person's age to the risk of injury occurrence and the corresponding injury severity in traffic accidents. A representative sample of belted drivers was analyzed by using data from the German In-Depth-Accident Study (GIDAS) to investigate the influence of age on injury severity and special injuries to different body regions. The study focused on two age groups: 17-30 year old (younger drivers) and older drivers 50 year old and older (50+). The injury risk was described as a function of delta-v and injury risk curves based on Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Furthermore, individual parameters like age and body mass index (BMI) as well as age and mass of the vehicle were considered. The statistical analysis was carried out using descriptive and multivariate statistics. This paper presents an overview of injury patterns of belted drivers and the probability of these drivers being injured in different accident scenarios.
X