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Technical Paper

A New Approach to Occupant Simulation Through the Coupling of PC-Crash and MADYMO

1999-03-01
1999-01-0444
During recent years the accident simulation program PC-Crash was developed. This software simulates vehicle movement before, during and after the impact, using 3D vehicle and scene models. ...A new interface has been developed between MADYMO® and PC-Crash so that, after the reconstruction of an accident, only a few additional parameters regarding restraint system, seat and occupant must be defined. ...A new interface has been developed between MADYMO® and PC-Crash so that, after the reconstruction of an accident, only a few additional parameters regarding restraint system, seat and occupant must be defined. PC-Crash then creates all necessary input files for MADYMO® and starts the occupant simulation.
Technical Paper

Development of CAE Methodology for Rollover Sensing Algorithm

2009-04-20
2009-01-0828
The Rollover CAE model is developed for Rollover sensing algorithm in this paper. By using suggested CAE model, it is possible to make sensing data of rollover test matrix and these data can be used for calibration of rollover sensing algorithm. Developed vehicle model consists of three parts: a vehicle parts, an occupant parts and a ground boundary conditions. The vehicle parts include detailed suspension model and FE structure model. The occupant parts include ATD (anthropomorphic test device) male dummy and restraint systems: Curtain Airbag and Seat-Belt. We find analytical value of the suspension model through correlation with vehicle drop test, simulate this model under the conditions of untripped (Embankment, Corkscrew) and tripped (Curb-Trip, Soil-Trip) rollover scenarios. Comparison of the simulation and experimental data shows that the simulation results of suggested CAE model can be substituted for the experimental ones in calibration of rollover sensing algorithm.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Simulation and Sensor Development for Occupant Protection in Rollover Accidents

2000-11-01
2000-01-C038
Automotive occupant safety continues to evolve. At present this area has gathered a strong consumer interest which the vehicle manufacturers are tapping into with the introduction of many new safety technologies. Initially, individual passive devices and features such as seatbelts, knee- bolsters, structural crush zones, airbags etc., were developed for to help save lives and minimize injuries in accidents. Over the years, preventive measures such as improving visibility, headlights, windshield wipers, tire traction etc., were deployed to help reduce the probability of getting into an accident. With tremendous new research and improvements in electronics, we are at the stage of helping to actively avoid accidents in certain situations as well as providing increased protection to vehicle occupants and pedestrians.
Technical Paper

Essential Considerations in Delta-V Determination

2001-10-01
2001-01-3165
While Delta-V has been one of the most used indicators of accident severity for vehicle occupants, its actual determination remains a mystery to many who refer to it and use it. Delta-V is a term of art applied to a rapid change in vehicle velocity caused by impact forces during a collision. The Delta-V is associated with the high decelerations, which cause it and are applied to the occupants through restraint systems and collisions with the interior of the vehicle. This paper will serve as a primer for those new to the subject and a review for those who are familiar with the subject. Previous works by the authors will be referenced and other pertinent literature and data sources will be discussed. The analytical methods and test data used to calculate Delta-V will be presented and the relationship between Delta-V and other measures of impact severity, such as Barrier Equivalent Velocity and Energy Equivalent Speed will be discussed. The use of air bag sensor data will be included.
Technical Paper

Effectiveness of Side-Airbags for Front Struckside Belted Car Occupants in Lateral Impact Conditions - An In-Depth-Analysis by GIDAS1

2007-04-16
2007-01-1157
Accident documentations on GIDAS (German In-Depth-Accident Study) from 1999 to 2005 are used for this study dealing with the effectiveness of the side airbag protection for car occupants. An analysis of real world accidents was carried out by ARU-MUH (Accident Research Unit - Medical University Hannover). The data were collected based on the spot documentation in time after an accident event. Based on the accident sampling process, the results of this study are representative for the German traffic accident situation. In order to determine the influence and the effectiveness of airbags, only those accident configurations with comparable conditions on impact direction are used for the study, therefore only cases with impact to the compartment, a delta-v-range 5 to 50 km/h and for struckside seated belted occupants were selected.
Technical Paper

Pulse Shape and Duration in Frontal Crashes

2007-04-16
2007-01-0724
Understanding of events within the history of a crash, and estimation of the severity of occupant interior collisions depend upon an accurate assessment of crash duration. Since this time duration is not measured independently in most crash test reports, it must usually be inferred from interpretations of acceleration data or from displacement data in high-speed film analysis. The significant physical effects related to the crash pulse are often essential in reconstruction analyses wherein the estimation of occupant interior “second collision” or airbag sensing issues are at issue. A simple relation is presented and examined which allows approximation of the approach phase and separation phase kinematics, including restitution and pulse width. Building upon previous work, this relation allows straightforward interpretation of test data from related publicly available test reports.
Technical Paper

Real-time Crash Detection and Its Application in Incident Reporting and Accident Reconstruction

2017-03-28
2017-01-1419
Characterizing or reconstructing incidents ranging from light to heavy crashes is one of the enablers for mobility solutions for fleet management, car-sharing, ride-hailing, insurance etc. While crashes involving airbag deployment are noticeable, light crashes without airbag deployment can be hidden and most drivers do not report these incidents. In this paper, we are using vehicle responses together with a dynamics model to trace back if abnormal forces have been applied to a vehicle so as to detect light crashes. The crash location around the perimeter of the vehicle, the direction of the crash force, and the severity of the crashes are all determined in real-time based on on-board sensor measurements which has further application in accident reconstruction. All of this information will be integrated to a feature called “Incident Report”, which enable reporting of minor accidents to the relevant entities such as insurance agencies, fleet managements, etc.
Book

Advances in Side Airbag Systems

2005-01-15
Thanks to years of research and development by vehicle manufacturers, suppliers, legislation, and the entire safety community, the side airbag has become a critical safety device to reduce injury and save lives. This new collection of technical research highlights the progression of these essential safety features, providing a complete and thorough perspective through the analysis of both early patents and recent side airbag system developments. Advances in Side Airbag Systems begins with an introduction by editor Donald E. Struble, chronicling the progress made since the mid-1980s in offering improved side impact protection to the motoring public. Authored by leading experts in their respective fields, this book features a comprehensive collection of 26 landmark technical papers. Its scope includes not only thorax airbags, but other inflatable devices designed for side impacts and rollovers.
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