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Technical Paper

Reconstruction of Pediatric Occupant Kinematic Responses Using Finite Element Method in a Real-World Lateral Impact

2017-03-28
2017-01-1462
Computational human body models, especially detailed finite element models are suitable for investigation of human body kinematic responses and injury mechanism. A real-world lateral vehicle-tree impact accident was reconstructed by using finite element method according to the accident description in the CIREN database. At first, a baseline vehicle FE model was modified and validated according to the NCAP lateral impact test. The interaction between the car and the tree in the accident was simulated using LS-Dyna software. Parameters that affect the simulation results, such as the initial pre-crash speed, impact direction, and the initial impact location on the vehicle, were analyzed. The parameters were determined by matching the simulated vehicle body deformations and kinematics to the accident reports.
Journal Article

A Bayesian Approach to Cross-Validation in Pedestrian Accident Reconstruction

2011-04-12
2011-01-0290
In statistical modeling, cross-validation refers to the practice of fitting a model with part of the available data, and then using predictions of the unused data to test and improve the fitted model. In accident reconstruction, cross-validation is possible when two different measurements can be used to estimate the same accident feature, such as when measured skidmark length and pedestrian throw distance each provide an estimate of impact speed. In this case a Bayesian cross-validation can be carried out by (1) using one measurement and Bayes theorem to compute a posterior distribution for the impact speed, (2) using this posterior distribution to compute a predictive distribution for the second measurement, and then (3) comparing the actual second measurement to this predictive distribution. An actual measurement falling in an extreme tail of the predictive distribution suggests a weakness in the assumptions governing the reconstruction.
Technical Paper

The CREST project accident data base

2001-06-04
2001-06-0042
The protection of children in cars is improving with the increasing use of better designed restraint systems. Indeed, when children are correctly restrained in appropriate child restraint systems (CRS) they are sufficiently well protected in moderate frontal impacts. However, the levels of protection afforded in severe frontal impacts and lateral crashes has needed further attention. The CREST project, funded by the European Commission, was initiated to develop the knowledge on the kinematics behavior and tolerances of children involved in car crashes. The final aim of the project is to propose enhanced test procedures for evaluating the effectiveness of child restraint systems (CRS). The method used in this project was to collect data from accident investigations and from reconstructed crashes in order to determine the physical parameters (measured on dummies) which correspond to various injury mechanisms, and is described in ESV 2001 - paper n°294.
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