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Technical Paper

Effective Numerical Simulation Tool for Real-World Rollover Accidents by Combining PC-Crash and FEA

2007-04-16
2007-01-1773
In this work, we focused on the trip-over type, which occurs most frequently, and performed simulations to reproduce real-world rollover accidents by combining PC-Crash and FEA. At first, using a simplified full car model, sufficient conditions, such as additional velocity, required for a curb trip-over accident to occur, were derived from energy balance concept based on the same principle as critical sliding velocity (CSV) criterion. ...Based on rigid body dynamics, PC-Crash software was chosen to make an accident reconstruction analysis of some selected cases chosen from an accident database (NASS-CDS). ...The output of this PC-crash simulation was then used as the initial input conditions (i.e., speed, deceleration, etc.) of a detailed finite element analysis.
Technical Paper

Soil Trip Rollover Simulation and Occupant Kinematics in Real World Accident

2007-08-05
2007-01-3680
In this work, we focused on the trip-over type, which occurs most frequently, and performed simulations to reproduce real-world rollover accidents by combining PC-Crash and FEA. Soil trip-over simulation was carried out based on real world accidents. Based on rigid body dynamics, PC-Crash software was chosen to make an accident reconstruction analysis of some selected cases chosen from an accident database (NASS-CDS). ...Based on rigid body dynamics, PC-Crash software was chosen to make an accident reconstruction analysis of some selected cases chosen from an accident database (NASS-CDS). ...The output of this PC-crash simulation was then used as the initial input conditions (i.e., speed, deceleration, etc.) of a detailed finite element analysis.
Standard

Rollover Testing Methods

2017-07-28
CURRENT
J2926_201707
The scope of this document is to provide an overview of the techniques found in the published literature for rollover testing and rollover crashworthiness evaluation at the vehicle and component levels. It is not a comprehensive literature review, but rather illustrates the techniques that are in use or have been used to evaluate rollover crashworthiness-related issues.
Technical Paper

Occupant Friction Coefficients on Various Combinations of Seat and Clothing

2009-06-11
2009-01-1672
This paper reports on tests conducted to determine static and dynamic coefficients of friction between occupant clothing and automotive seat upholstery materials. Multiple materials were used for both the occupants clothing and the seat upholstery to examine friction variations with various material combinations. A fixture was fabricated to hold an automotive seat stationary while a dummy was pulled forward off of the seat. The forces required to pull the dummy were recorded for the various upholstery and clothing materials and the coefficients of friction were determined.
Technical Paper

ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF SEAT BELTS IN BUSES BASED ON RECENT ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN SPAIN

2001-06-04
2001-06-0019
The most important topic in the field of passive safety of buses and coaches nowadays is the future compulsory use of seat belts. The objective of the study performed by IDIADA AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY SA and CENTRO ZARAGOZA is to make an important contribution to the existing technical data about this subject. This paper is based on the in-depth analysis of recent road traffic accidents where buses were involved. The first step is the accident reconstruction. A complete injury report including description and causes of occupant injuries is the basis for the correlation of a computer simulation model. Experience in the development of coach seats equipped with seat belts enables the preparation of a comparative model. The hypothesis that the consequences of the accident could have been less severe if the occupants of the bus had worn a seat belt can be evaluated. The conclusions will help the legislators make the right decision.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Seat Belt Pretensioners on Occupant Kinematics During Rollover

2006-04-03
2006-01-0246
The results of a number of previous studies have demonstrated that seat-belted occupants can undergo significant upward and outward excursion during the airborne phase of vehicular rollover, which may place the occupant at risk for injury during subsequent ground contacts. Furthermore, testing using human volunteers, ATDs, and cadavers has shown that increasing tension in the restraint system prior to a rollover event may be of value for reducing occupant displacement. On this basis, it may be argued that pretensioning the restraint system, utilizing technology developed and installed primarily for improving injury outcome in frontal impacts, may modify restrained occupant injury potential during rollover accidents. However, the capacity of current pretensioner designs to positively impact the motion of a restrained occupant during rollover remains unclear.
Technical Paper

Design and Evaluation of an Affordable Seatbelt Retrofit for Motor Coach Occupant Safety

2017-01-10
2017-26-0018
Prevention of passenger ejection from motor coach seats in the case of rollover and frontal crashes is critical for minimizing fatalities and injuries. This paper proposes a novel concept of affordably retrofitting 3-point seatbelts to protect passengers during these significant crash scenarios. Currently, the available options involve replacement of either the entire fleet, which takes time to avoid extremely high costs, or all seats with new seats that have seatbelts which is still expensive. Alternatively, this paper presents the development of an innovative product that can be installed in seat belt-ready bus structures at a fraction of the cost. The efficacy of the design is studied using finite element analysis (FEA) to meet Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 210 standards for conditions involved in frontal and side impacts.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Finite Element Models for Head Injury Investigation: Reconstruction of Four Real-World Impacts

2005-11-09
2005-22-0001
Previous studies have shown that both excessive linear and rotational accelerations are the cause of head injuries. Although the head injury criterion has been beneficial as an indicator of head injury risk, it only considers linear acceleration, so there is a need to consider both types of motion in future safety standards. Advanced models of the head/brain complex have recently been developed to gain a better understanding of head injury biomechanics. While these models have been verified against laboratory experimental data, there is a lack of suitable real-world data available for validation. Hence, using two computer models of the head/brain, the objective of the current study was to reconstruct four real-world crashes with known head injury outcomes in a full-vehicle crash laboratory, simulate head/brain responses using kinematics obtained during these reconstructions, and to compare the results predicted by the models against the actual injuries sustained by the occupant.
Standard

Rollover Testing Methods

2011-08-18
HISTORICAL
J2926_201108
The scope of this document is to provide an overview of the techniques found in the published literature for rollover testing and rollover crashworthiness evaluation at the vehicle and component levels. It is not a comprehensive literature review, but rather illustrates the techniques that are in use or have been used to evaluate rollover crashworthiness-related issues.
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