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Technical Paper

A Comparison Study between PC-Crash Simulation and Instrumented Handling Maneuvers

2011-04-12
2011-01-1121
Lateral acceleration, roll angle, roll rate, and yaw rate vehicle response from PC-Crash were compared to the MSAI sensor data. The authors modeled 26 handling tests. PC-Crash appeared to be a reasonable tool for modeling gross vehicle response. ...This research compares vehicle dynamic simulations in PC-Crash 8.2 to data recorded during instrumented handling tests conducted by Mechanical Systems Analysis Incorporated (MSAI). ...Vehicle weight, center of gravity (c.g) position, suspension stiffness parameters, tire parameters, steering angle, and vehicle speed data provided by MSAI were used as input for the PC-Crash model. Lateral acceleration, roll angle, roll rate, and yaw rate vehicle response from PC-Crash were compared to the MSAI sensor data.
Technical Paper

A Pilot Study at National Highway-8 for On-Site Crash Data Collection and In-Depth Investigation in India

2017-01-10
2017-26-0001
The importance of on-site, in-depth accident research studies has been recognized internationally especially in developed countries. In order to address problems related to road safety, it is important to understand the epidemiology and causation of crashes. For this an in-depth investigation of the crash site, vehicles involved and injury details is required. Detailed crash information helps in analysing the events leading to crash and developing safety measures and/or intervention to reduce crashes. In order to pilot such an activity in India, an in-depth accident data collection activity had been carried out on national highway connecting Delhi to Jaipur (NH-8) for a duration of over a year by a joint team of IIT-Delhi and NATRiP. A total of 1220 road traffic accidents (RTA) notifications were received by the team, of which 186 cases were attended and detailed data was collected in a pre-decided format.
Technical Paper

ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF SEAT BELTS IN BUSES BASED ON RECENT ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN SPAIN

2001-06-04
2001-06-0019
The most important topic in the field of passive safety of buses and coaches nowadays is the future compulsory use of seat belts. The objective of the study performed by IDIADA AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY SA and CENTRO ZARAGOZA is to make an important contribution to the existing technical data about this subject. This paper is based on the in-depth analysis of recent road traffic accidents where buses were involved. The first step is the accident reconstruction. A complete injury report including description and causes of occupant injuries is the basis for the correlation of a computer simulation model. Experience in the development of coach seats equipped with seat belts enables the preparation of a comparative model. The hypothesis that the consequences of the accident could have been less severe if the occupants of the bus had worn a seat belt can be evaluated. The conclusions will help the legislators make the right decision.
Technical Paper

Accuracy and Sensitivity of Yaw Speed Analysis to Available Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0417
Accident reconstructionists rarely have complete data with which to determine vehicle speed, and so the true value must be bracketed within a range. Previous work has shown the effect of friction uncertainty in determining speed from tire marks left by a vehicle in yaw. The goal of the current study was to assess improvements in the accuracy of vehicle speed estimated from yaw marks using progressively more scene and vehicle information. Data for this analysis came from staged S-turn maneuvers that in some cases led to rollover of sport utility vehicles. Initial speeds were first calculated using the critical curve speed (CCS) formula on the yaw marks from the first portion of the S-maneuver. Then computer simulations were performed with progressively more input data: i) the complete tire marks from the whole S-maneuver, ii) measured vehicle mass, iii) measured suspension stiffness and damping, and iv) measured steering history.
Technical Paper

Comparisons of Devices for Measuring Acceleration vs. Time in Braking Tests

2008-04-14
2008-01-0180
The coefficient of friction between a vehicle's tires and the roadway is a key parameter in any accident reconstruction. With the proliferation of vehicle dynamics software, it is often important to have more details regarding the tires interaction with the road than simply the average deceleration rate. Devices which can provide the peak friction as the braking develops, along with the average deceleration during the fully developed sliding phase, are necessary. There are now products widely available to the accident reconstruction market which provides these parameters as well as detailed acceleration vs. time curves. The following products capable of providing these results were tested: Accelerex, Vericom VC3000, and two general purpose accelerometers made by Silicon Designs and Dimension Engineering. Tests were conducted on wet and dry asphalt surfaces using a variety of passenger vehicles and transit buses which confirmed the agreement between these devices.
Technical Paper

Driver Perception of Lateral Collision Threats

2020-04-14
2020-01-1198
Immediate collision hazards pose obvious threats to approaching drivers and therefore provoke emergency evasive responses. When the hazard is a vehicle intruding into the lane ahead, how its movement characteristics influence an approaching driver’s response is not well understood. This study examined the relationship between intruding vehicle motion and hazard perception. Seventeen subjects viewed first-person perspective recordings of a simulated vehicle travelling down a two-lane roadway containing several intersections with stop-controlled minor roads. Stopped vehicles were located at approximately half of the minor road intersections. Throughout the study, some vehicles (termed ‘intruders’) accelerated into the subject’s lane of travel at 1 of 6 pre-determined acceleration rates. Subjects were instructed to ‘brake’ their vehicle by pressing the space bar on a keyboard as soon as they perceived that a collision was imminent.
Technical Paper

ERRATUM

2014-04-01
2014-01-0464.01
Technical Paper

Modeling of Occupant Impacts During Rollover Collisions

2000-03-06
2000-01-0854
This paper describes a modeling method whereby the occupant impacts during rollover collisions may be predicted with sufficient accuracy to predict their injury level. By using MADYMO to reconstruct the vehicle motions during a rollover collision and the subsequent vehicle accelerations, the model may also be used to calculate occupant impact accelerations if reasonable estimates of interior surface stiffnesses are used.
Journal Article

Reconstructing Vehicle Dynamics from On-Board Event Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0632
These predictions were generated by directly integrating the VCH data and by using the VCH data as inputs to PC-Crash simulations. The predicted positions and headings were then compared to the actual position and heading data measured using differential GPS synchronized to the VCH data record.
Technical Paper

The Collision and Trajectory Models of PC-CRASH

1996-02-01
960886
This paper presents the trajectory and collision models on which PC-CRASH is based. PC-CRASH'S model for predicting the 3D kinematics of a vehicle's pre- and post-impact trajectory, which is based on a discrete- kinetic time forward simulation of vehicle dynamics rather than empirically-derived “spin-out coefficients”, is described. ...PC-CRASH is a windowso-based accident-reconstruction program which combines the simulation of pre-collision, collision, and post-collision dynamics for multiple vehicles in a graphical environment.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Acceleration Modeling in PC-Crash

2014-04-01
2014-01-0464
The research reported here offers a validation of this capability, demonstrating that PC-Crash can be used to realistically model the build-up of a vehicle's speed under maximal acceleration. ...In the research reported here, PC-Crash 9.0 was used to model the full-throttle acceleration capabilities of three vehicles with automatic transmissions - a 2006 Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor (CVPI), a 2000 Cadillac DeVille DTS, and a 2003 Ford F150. ...In each case, the full-throttle acceleration of the vehicles modeled in PC-Crash showed good agreement with the acceleration of the real vehicles in our road tests.
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