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Technical Paper

Real-time Crash Detection and Its Application in Incident Reporting and Accident Reconstruction

2017-03-28
2017-01-1419
Characterizing or reconstructing incidents ranging from light to heavy crashes is one of the enablers for mobility solutions for fleet management, car-sharing, ride-hailing, insurance etc. While crashes involving airbag deployment are noticeable, light crashes without airbag deployment can be hidden and most drivers do not report these incidents. In this paper, we are using vehicle responses together with a dynamics model to trace back if abnormal forces have been applied to a vehicle so as to detect light crashes. The crash location around the perimeter of the vehicle, the direction of the crash force, and the severity of the crashes are all determined in real-time based on on-board sensor measurements which has further application in accident reconstruction. All of this information will be integrated to a feature called “Incident Report”, which enable reporting of minor accidents to the relevant entities such as insurance agencies, fleet managements, etc.
Technical Paper

Wrap Around Distance WAD of Pedestrian and Bicyclists and Relevance as Influence Parameter for Head Injuries

2015-04-14
2015-01-1461
During most pedestrian-vehicle crashes the car front impacts the pedestrian and the whole body wraps around the front shape of the car. This influences the head impact on the vehicle. Meanwhile the windscreen is a major impact point and tested in NCAP conditions. The severity of injuries is influenced by car impact speed; type of vehicle; stiffness and shape of the vehicle; nature of the front (such as the bumper height, bonnet height and length, windscreen frame); age and body height of the pedestrian; and standing position of the pedestrian relative to the vehicle front. The so called Wrap Around Distance WAD is one of the important measurements for the assessment of protection of pedestrians and of bicyclists as well because the kinematic of bicyclists is similar to that of pedestrians. For this study accidents of GIDAS were used to identify the importance of WAD for the resulting head injury severity of pedestrians and bicyclists.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Measurement Uncertainty on the Reconstruction of Various Vehicular Collisions

2004-03-08
2004-01-1220
This paper continues a previous study of the effects of uncertainty of measurement upon accident reconstruction. The task is to identify, given the many inevitable errors of observation, the few of greatest import, so that these errors may be reduced, and to document the accuracy of the associated reconstruction. Until recently, it was not for lack of method that such studies could not be properly performed, but for lack of good data on uncertainty of measurement. The essential data was provided in 2002 in a report by Bartlett and others of juried studies performed by volunteer field investigators, summarized and supplemented in 2003 by Bartlett and Fonda in the form of a single table of all likely errors of measurement (furnished again here). In that paper, Finite Difference Analysis (FDA) was reviewed and with the aid of the new data was applied to automotive accident reconstruction.
Technical Paper

Electronics and Algorithms for Rollover Sensing

2004-03-08
2004-01-0343
Rollover sensing and discrimination generally requires an algorithm that monitors vehicle motion and anticipates conditions that will lead to a rollover. In general, a deploy command is required in a time frame such that safety measures can be activated early enough to protect the occupants. A rollover discrimination system will typically include internal motion sensors, vehicle signals from other on-board sensors, and a microprocessor to execute the deployment algorithm. A supplemental signal path is used to arm the system, making it less susceptible to single point component failures. In this chapter we explore basic concepts of rollover sensors and system mechanization, rollover discrimination algorithms, and arming methodology. A simulation environment that models the performance of the system across part tolerance, temperature extremes and component age is used to estimate the scope of expected discrimination performance in the field.
Standard

Rollover Testing Methods

2011-08-18
HISTORICAL
J2926_201108
The scope of this document is to provide an overview of the techniques found in the published literature for rollover testing and rollover crashworthiness evaluation at the vehicle and component levels. It is not a comprehensive literature review, but rather illustrates the techniques that are in use or have been used to evaluate rollover crashworthiness-related issues.
Technical Paper

Simulating Moving Motorcycle to Moving Car Crashes

2012-04-16
2012-01-0621
There has been little published research into simulating two-moving motorcycle-to-car collisions for the purpose of accident reconstruction. In this paper a series of two-moving crash tests were conducted to study collisions of this type. These tests used a range of speeds for the cars and the motorcycles involved, with perpendicular and oblique intersection collision impact configurations. The tests were then simulated with two popular crash simulation packages which were not designed to simulate motorcycles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate existing techniques and develop new techniques for simulating motorcycles in these software packages and then to examine the ability of each package to simulate a two-moving motorcycle-to-car crash. The results demonstrate that it is indeed possible to simulate a motorcycle in these packages and that both packages can simulate two-moving motorcycle-to-car crashes reasonably well.
Technical Paper

A Critique of Critical Speed Yaw Mark Research

2012-04-16
2012-01-0600
Critical speed yaw marks are commonly used in collision reconstruction to estimate vehicle speed. Research and laboratory testing have demonstrated that critical speed calculations can be used to accurately estimate vehicle speed. Thus, the principles supporting critical speed yaw analysis are fundamentally and theoretically valid and are not being challenged in this study. However, there are observed and documented limitations with respect to the appropriate application and execution of critical speed yaw analysis. This paper reviews the published research to-date and identifies limitations of critical speed yaw analysis. Examples of collision scenes are provided which quantify the inaccuracies associated with the misuse of critical speed yaw calculations. Areas for further research are identified and detailed.
Book

Collision Reconstruction Methodologies Volume 10B: Pedestrian Collisions

2018-11-02
The last ten years have seen explosive growth in the technology available to the collision analyst, changing the way reconstruction is practiced in fundamental ways. The greatest technological advances for the crash reconstruction community have come in the realms of photogrammetry and digital media analysis. The widespread use of scanning technology has facilitated the implementation of powerful new tools to digitize forensic data, create 3D models and visualize and analyze crash vehicles and environments. The introduction of unmanned aerial systems and standardization of crash data recorders to the crash reconstruction community have enhanced the ability of a crash analyst to visualize and model the components of a crash reconstruction. Because of the technological changes occurring in the industry, many SAE papers have been written to address the validation and use of new tools for collision reconstruction.
Book

Collision Reconstruction Methodologies Volume 6B: Rollover Accident Reconstruction

2018-11-02
The last ten years have seen explosive growth in the technology available to the collision analyst, changing the way reconstruction is practiced in fundamental ways. The greatest technological advances for the crash reconstruction community have come in the realms of photogrammetry and digital media analysis. The widespread use of scanning technology has facilitated the implementation of powerful new tools to digitize forensic data, create 3D models and visualize and analyze crash vehicles and environments. The introduction of unmanned aerial systems and standardization of crash data recorders to the crash reconstruction community have enhanced the ability of a crash analyst to visualize and model the components of a crash reconstruction. Because of the technological changes occurring in the industry, many SAE papers have been written to address the validation and use of new tools for collision reconstruction.
Book

Advances in Side Airbag Systems

2005-01-15
Thanks to years of research and development by vehicle manufacturers, suppliers, legislation, and the entire safety community, the side airbag has become a critical safety device to reduce injury and save lives. This new collection of technical research highlights the progression of these essential safety features, providing a complete and thorough perspective through the analysis of both early patents and recent side airbag system developments. Advances in Side Airbag Systems begins with an introduction by editor Donald E. Struble, chronicling the progress made since the mid-1980s in offering improved side impact protection to the motoring public. Authored by leading experts in their respective fields, this book features a comprehensive collection of 26 landmark technical papers. Its scope includes not only thorax airbags, but other inflatable devices designed for side impacts and rollovers.
Book

Collision Reconstruction Methodologies Volume 9: Bicycle Accident Reconstruction

2018-11-02
The last ten years have seen explosive growth in the technology available to the collision analyst, changing the way reconstruction is practiced in fundamental ways. The greatest technological advances for the crash reconstruction community have come in the realms of photogrammetry and digital media analysis. The widespread use of scanning technology has facilitated the implementation of powerful new tools to digitize forensic data, create 3D models and visualize and analyze crash vehicles and environments. The introduction of unmanned aerial systems and standardization of crash data recorders to the crash reconstruction community have enhanced the ability of a crash analyst to visualize and model the components of a crash reconstruction. Because of the technological changes occurring in the industry, many SAE papers have been written to address the validation and use of new tools for collision reconstruction.
Book

Crash Reconstruction Research

2008-03-17
The science of crash reconstruction enables engineers to determine the most probable scenario for how and why traffic collisions occur. Ongoing research has continually enhanced crash reconstructionists' knowledge of the application of physical laws in this field. Crash Reconstruction Research: 20 Years of Progress (1988-2007) features 47 papers that have presented significant steps forward, focusing on the following areas within the field of crash reconstruction that have experienced major advances: Planar Impact Mechanics Stiffness Modeling Crash Pulse Analysis Structural Restitution Lateral Deformation and Override/Underride BEV v. Delta-V Rear and Side Impacts Pole Impacts Uncertainty Analysis Pedestrian Crashes Braking Performance
Book

Recent Developments in Automotive Safety Technology

2004-09-23
Automotive engineers have been working to improve vehicle safety ever since the first car rolleddown some pathway well over 100 years ago. Today, there are many new technologies being developedthat will improve the safety of future vehicles. Featuring the 69 best safety-related SAE technical papers of 2003, this book provides the most comprehensive information available on current and emerging developments in automotive safety. It gives readers a feel for the direction engineers are taking to reduce deaths and injuries of vehicle occupants as well as pedestrians. All of the papers selected for this book meet the criteria for inclusion in SAE Transactions--the definitive collection of the year's best technical research in automotive engineering technology.
Book

Collision Reconstruction Methodologies Volume 10A: Pedestrian Collisions

2018-11-02
The last ten years have seen explosive growth in the technology available to the collision analyst, changing the way reconstruction is practiced in fundamental ways. The greatest technological advances for the crash reconstruction community have come in the realms of photogrammetry and digital media analysis. The widespread use of scanning technology has facilitated the implementation of powerful new tools to digitize forensic data, create 3D models and visualize and analyze crash vehicles and environments. The introduction of unmanned aerial systems and standardization of crash data recorders to the crash reconstruction community have enhanced the ability of a crash analyst to visualize and model the components of a crash reconstruction. Because of the technological changes occurring in the industry, many SAE papers have been written to address the validation and use of new tools for collision reconstruction.
Book

Collision Reconstruction Methodologies Volume 4: Motorcycle Accident Reconstruction

2018-11-02
The last ten years have seen explosive growth in the technology available to the collision analyst, changing the way reconstruction is practiced in fundamental ways. The greatest technological advances for the crash reconstruction community have come in the realms of photogrammetry and digital media analysis. The widespread use of scanning technology has facilitated the implementation of powerful new tools to digitize forensic data, create 3D models and visualize and analyze crash vehicles and environments. The introduction of unmanned aerial systems and standardization of crash data recorders to the crash reconstruction community have enhanced the ability of a crash analyst to visualize and model the components of a crash reconstruction. Because of the technological changes occurring in the industry, many SAE papers have been written to address the validation and use of new tools for collision reconstruction.
Book

Head Injury Biomechanics, Volume 3 -- Mitigation

2011-09-08
Nearly 50,000 Americans die from brain injuries annually, with approximately half of all Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) being transportation-related. TBI is a critical and ever-evolving safety topic, with equally important components of injury prevention, consequences, and treatment. This book is part of a 3-volume set which presents a comprehensive look at recent head injury research and applies protective strategies to various injury scenarios, such as passenger vehicles, sports, and blast injuries, or to a particular demographic group, such as children or seniors. This volume features 14 technical papers. Editor Jeffrey A. Pike has selected the most relevant technical papers spanning the early 1990s through the beginning of 2011, including several older papers which provide an essential historical perspective. Each volume in the series also includes a table of references arranged by topic and a new chapter tying together anatomy, injury, and injury mechanism topics.
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