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Technical Paper

Pressurized Rover Airlocks

2000-07-10
2000-01-2389
The availability of a pressurized rover would substantially increase the range of exploration by space suited crewmembers. The design of the airlock systems or functions will facilitate crewmembers in accomplishing these efforts. ...The pressurized rover for planetary exploration incorporates three types of airlocks or pressure ports: the EVA airlock, the sample airlock and the habitat docking port. ...This paper conducts a survey of selected precedents in pressurized rover design and then analyzes the key issues for airlock design.
Technical Paper

Autonomous Rover Navigation

2003-07-07
2003-01-2597
This paper describes the work done in autonomous operation of mobile robot at the Canadian Space Agency. The Mobile Robotic Test bed (MRT) components are presented. The autonomy software, implemented using a behaviour-based approach, is presented. The peripheral sub-systems used by the reactive engine, such as vision and path planner are also described.
Technical Paper

EXOMARS ROVER MODULE Thermal Control System

2008-06-29
2008-01-2003
EXOMARS is a European-led space exploration mission, currently under development by the European Space Agency (ESA) that will send a robotic rover to the surface of Mars. The EXOMARS rover is a “robotic mission” which will provide Europe with new technologies for the exploration of Mars, specifically the surface Rover and its Drill and Sample Preparation and Distribution System (SPDS). ...The scientific payloads are accommodated in two separate assemblies: the Pasteur Payload installed onboard the Rover, and the Geophysical Science Package, mounted on the Landing Platform. The Rover accommodates as well a drill capable of collecting soil samples down to 2 m below the Mars surface. ...The EXOMARS rover is a “robotic mission” which will provide Europe with new technologies for the exploration of Mars, specifically the surface Rover and its Drill and Sample Preparation and Distribution System (SPDS). The EXOMARS spacecraft will be launched from the Guiana Space Centre (Kourou) in 2013: it will consist of the Carrier Module (CM) and a Descent Module (DM).
Technical Paper

Thermal Design for Moon-NEXT Polar Rover

2009-07-12
2009-01-2461
The general goal of the mission is part lunar science as well as technology demonstration which are not limited to the Moon. The Rover element of the mission is composed of the rover vehicle service model element, locomotion system and the science payload, with a significant constraint on the overall mass. ...The Moon-NEXT Lunar Rover is the mobile component of a lunar lander mission to provide the best possible in situ science and mobility in the area of the Lunar south pole. ...The lunar thermal environment presents the main challenge to autonomous rover thermal design at the selected landing site. A primary goal of the mission is to operate in the polar region of the Moon, in a territory that may support future a manned base.
Technical Paper

Thermal Design Considerations for a Mars Rover

2005-07-11
2005-01-2826
The ground experiments are carried on a wheeled Mars Rover vehicle, which comprises a service module and the 40kg Pasteur payload module containing the sample analysis packages and sample collection and transport systems. ...The ExoMars mission is due to be launched in 2009. The Rover will be built to operate autonomously and travel several kilometres over the Martian surface, carrying out in-situ soil sample analyses, and identifying and characterising possible hazards to future human exploration. ...Where possible, the Rover thermal control will be based on existing space-qualified technology used in novel configurations to protect the Rover and its payload from the harsh environment of the Martian surface.
Technical Paper

Mars Rover 2003 Battery Charger

1999-08-02
1999-01-2447
During each launch opportunity, the missions to Mars will include a Rover mission. During the earlier Rover missions to Mars such as the Mars Pathfinder mission carrying the Sojourner Rover in 1997, the main rover power source was a solar array. ...During the earlier Rover missions to Mars such as the Mars Pathfinder mission carrying the Sojourner Rover in 1997, the main rover power source was a solar array. The power subsystem of the Sojourner Rover included a solar panel for power during the day, a non-rechargeable lithium battery for power during the night, and a power electronics board for power conditioning and distribution. ...The power subsystem of the Sojourner Rover included a solar panel for power during the day, a non-rechargeable lithium battery for power during the night, and a power electronics board for power conditioning and distribution.
Technical Paper

Integrated Thermal Control and Qualification of the Mars Rover

1996-07-01
961534
The Mars Rover has a lightweight integrated structure/insulation that has been environmentally tested and qualified for the 1996 launch for the Pathfinder mission to Mars. ...The basic structure with insulation, called the Warm Electronics Box (WEB), accounts for only 10% of the total Rover mass. The WEB is a thermal isolating composite structure with co-cured thermal control surfaces and an ultralightweight hydrophobic solid silica aerogel which minimizes conduction and radiation. ...This design provides excellent thermal insulation at low gas pressures and meets the structural requirements for spacecraft launch loads and for a 60 g impact landing at Mars without damage to the insulation or structure. The Rover design has been thermally qualified in a series of both static and transient thermal-vacuum testing in vacuum and 8 torr wind environments simulating all predicted environmental conditions.
Technical Paper

A Heat Switch for European Mars Rover

2008-06-29
2008-01-2153
The future Mars rover thermal design presents a unique challenge to the thermal engineers: the need arises for a thermal control system able to keep rover elements within their operational and non-operational temperature ranges in the face of extreme environmental conditions, characterized by broad day/night temperature excursions, cold biased conditions and long periods in standby modes induced by dust storms. ...The future Mars rover thermal design presents a unique challenge to the thermal engineers: the need arises for a thermal control system able to keep rover elements within their operational and non-operational temperature ranges in the face of extreme environmental conditions, characterized by broad day/night temperature excursions, cold biased conditions and long periods in standby modes induced by dust storms. ...The demonstrator has been designed, built and tested for exploring its operational envelope, both versus the Rover functioning modes and the Mars environment. Test sequence is described in detail, focusing on the methods to characterize the key parameters of the Heat Switch.
Technical Paper

Technology and Demonstrations for a Lunar Rover Expedition

1996-07-01
961621
A favored launch vehicle is the extended H-IIA of Japanese manufacture, and a derivative of the Russian Phobos lander would deliver the rovers to the lunar surface. Each rover has a mass of 240 kg, generates 430 watts of electricity from solar arrays, and uses isotope units to provide 325 watts of heat to hibernate at night. ...The Lunar Rover Initiative (LRI) is producing technological and programmatic steps toward a commercial robotic expedition on the Moon at the turn of the millennium. ...Two teleoperated rovers will commemorate Apollo Era lunar landings by revisiting the historic sites of Apollo 11, Surveyor 5, Ranger 8, Apollo 17 and Lunokhod 2 during a two year, 2000km trek.
Technical Paper

Concept of Mechanical Interfaces for Planetary Space Suit to Airlock and Rover

2002-07-15
2002-01-2313
To move over the planet, astronauts are expected both to walk and use a planetary rover (Martian rover). To make EVA activities on the planetary surface successful, an optimized concept for space suit attachment both to the airlock and Martian rover should be developed. ...The concept provides for HUT-mounted attachment points and their mating fasteners located on the airlock wall and on the Martian rover. Using the same interfaces, the suited astronaut can be attached to the Martian rover working station and to the airlock. ...There are no usual seats on the Martian rover, consequently, there is no need to sit and stand in the rover. Ingress to and egress from the Martian rover become comfortable.
Technical Paper

First Astronaut - Rover Interaction Field Test

2000-07-10
2000-01-2482
As prototype advanced planetary surface space suit and rover technologies are being developed for human planetary surface exploration, it is desirable to better understand the interaction and potential benefits of an Extravehiclar Activity (EVA) crewmember interacting with a robotic rover. This interaction between an EVA astronaut and a robotic rover is seen as complementary and can greatly enhance the productivity and safety of surface excursions. ...The first ever Astronaut - Rover (ASRO) Interaction Field Test was conducted successfully on February 22-27, 1999, in Silver Lake, Mojave Desert, California in a representative surface terrain. ...This test was a joint effort between the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California and the NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas to investigate the interaction between humans and robotic rovers for potential future planetary surface exploration. As prototype advanced planetary surface space suit and rover technologies are being developed for human planetary surface exploration, it is desirable to better understand the interaction and potential benefits of an Extravehiclar Activity (EVA) crewmember interacting with a robotic rover.
Technical Paper

Power Transmission by Laser Beam from Lunar-Synchronous Satellites to a Lunar Rover

1992-08-03
929437
This study addresses the possibility of beaming laser power from synchronous lunar orbits (the L1 and L2 LaGrange points) to a manned long-range lunar rover. The rover and two versions of a satellite system (one powered by a nuclear reactor; the other by photovoltaics) are described in terms of their masses, geometry, power needs, mission and technological capabilities. ...Laser beam power is generated by a laser diode array in the satellite and converted to 30 kW of electrical power at the rover. Present technological capabilities, with some extrapolation to near future capabilities, are used in the descriptions. ...The advantages of the two satellite/rover systems over other such systems and over rovers with on-board power are discussed along with the possibility of enabling other missions.
Technical Paper

Mars Exploration Rover Surface Mission Flight Thermal Performance

2005-07-11
2005-01-2827
NASA launched two rovers in June and July of 2003 as a part of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project. MER-A (Spirit) landed on Mars in Gusev Crater at 15 degrees South latitude and 175 degrees East longitude on January 4, 2004 (Squyres, et al., Dec. 2004). ...This paper describes the MER rover thermal design, its implementation and performance on Mars. The rover surface thermal design performance was better than pre-landing predictions. ...., Aug. 2004). Both rovers have well exceeded their design lifetime (90 Sols) by more than a factor of 5. Spirit and Opportunity are still healthy and continue to execute their roving science missions at the time of this writing.
Technical Paper

The Mars Exploration Rover: An In Situ Science Mission to Mars

2001-07-09
2001-01-2136
In this paper the concept for a mobile vehicle system which performs an in situ science mission to Mars is described. This rover mission with its requirements for driving, positioning at science selected targets, and remote and in situ measurement will utilize the technologies for hazard avoidance and autonomous navigation supported by ground operation tools which use rover-based imagery for position estimation and motion planning.
Technical Paper

Lithium Ion Batteries for Future Mars Lander and Rover Missions

1999-04-06
1999-01-1390
BlueStar Advanced Technology Corporation (BATC), under contract to the USAF, is developing large Li ion cells and batteries which will satisfy the performance requirements of future Mars Lander and Rover missions. The present scenario for the Lander mission calls for a 28-V, 25-Ah battery which will discharge at the C/5 to C rate and be charged at the C/5 to C/2 rate. ...The mission requires > 500 cycles at a 50% depth of discharge and an operating temperature of -20°C to + 45°C. The Rover mission calls for a 14-V, 7-Ah battery which will operate in the temperature range -30°C to + 45°C with all other requirements being identical to that of the Lander.
Technical Paper

Thermal Testing of a Heat Switch for European Mars Rover

2009-07-12
2009-01-2573
The target application is the potential use on a Mars Rover thermal control system. The paper recalls the Heat Switch design, and reports the results of an extensive test campaign on the ground demonstrator.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of the Mars Exploration Rover Lithium Ion Batteries

2002-10-29
2002-01-3241
In a collaborative effort, Lithion and NASA/JPL developed a lithium ion battery capable of meeting the physical and electrochemical requirements for the 2003/2004 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions. The cells provide up to 145 Wh/kg, while the specific energy at the battery level, including wiring harnesses, thermal hardware and mounting hardware is approximately 90 Wh/kg.
Technical Paper

Mars Exploration Rover: Thermal Design is a System Engineering Activity

2004-07-19
2004-01-2411
The Mars Exploration Rovers (MER), were launched in June and July of 2003, respectively, and successfully landed on Mars in early and late January of 2004, respectively. ...The flight system architecture implemented many successful features of the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) system: A cruise stage that transported an entry vehicle that housed the Lander, which in turn, used airbags to cushion the Rover during the landing event. The initial thermal design approach focused on adopting the MPF design wherever possible, and then concentrating on the totally new Rover thermal design. ...The initial thermal design approach focused on adopting the MPF design wherever possible, and then concentrating on the totally new Rover thermal design. Despite a fundamentally sound approach, there were several salient lessons learned.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Life Support and Habitability Requirements for a Pressurized Lunar Rover

2009-07-12
2009-01-2505
The Terrapin Undergraduate Rover for Terrestrial Lunar Exploration (TURTLE) system was developed as part of a senior design course at the University of Maryland; it has since become a test bed for habitability and life support studies. ...The design requirements for the project dictated a 2,500 kg pressurized lunar rover to sustain two crew members for eight days with a range of 100 km. Part of the design effort included a full-scale mock-up populated with volumetric representations of interior elements. ...An analysis of relevant technologies and their application to small rovers is presented. Habitability issues (with respect to interior layout of life support hardware) are also considered.
Technical Paper

Mars Exploration Rover Thermal Test Program Overview

2004-07-19
2004-01-2310
This paper describes the test program undertaken to validate the thermal design and verify the workmanship integrity of both rovers and the spacecraft. The spacecraft, which contained the rover within the aeroshell, were tested in a 7.5 m diameter thermal vacuum chamber. ...In January 2004, two Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) landed on the surface of Mars to begin their mission as robotic geologists. A year prior to these historic landings, both rovers and the spacecraft that delivered them to Mars, were completing a series of environmental tests in facilities at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. ...A year prior to these historic landings, both rovers and the spacecraft that delivered them to Mars, were completing a series of environmental tests in facilities at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
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