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Technical Paper

NASA's Advanced Space Transportation System Launch Vehicles

1990-04-01
901046
The Next Manned Transportation System studies focus on concepts to extend, complement, or replace the Shuttle after the turn of the century; assessment for this system apprises three distinctly different paths: Shuttle Evolution, a new Personnel Launch System, and an Advanced Manned Launch System. The Space Transfer Vehicle studies seek the methods to satisfy the robotic and human exploration missions. ...The general requirements are: launch and lift capacity to low earth orbit (LEO); space-based transfer systems for orbital operations between LEO and geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), the Moon, and Mars; and transfer vehicle systems for long duration deep-space probes. ...Near-term launch system improvements will capitalize on the existing hardware and infrastructure of the Shuttle.
Technical Paper

Automatic and Manual Checkout of the Atlas Space Launch Vehicle Pneumatic System

1964-01-01
640479
The monocoque structure and the flight mission requirements of the Atlas space launch vehicle (SLV) has resulted in very stringent pressure and flow control conditions for its pneumatic system. The system characteristics of the Atlas ground and airborne pneumatic system are discussed, with special emphasis on the functional testing of the vehicle and the associated ground support equipment at the launch site. ...The system characteristics of the Atlas ground and airborne pneumatic system are discussed, with special emphasis on the functional testing of the vehicle and the associated ground support equipment at the launch site. Description of the automatic and manual check-out of the Atlas space launch vehicle pneumatic system is presented, including basic test philosophy and hardware description. ...The monocoque structure and the flight mission requirements of the Atlas space launch vehicle (SLV) has resulted in very stringent pressure and flow control conditions for its pneumatic system.
Article

ISS launches largest satellite to date to test active debris removal

2018-07-05
Astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) have launched RemoveDEBRIS, the first satellite with space debris-removal capabilities and the largest satellite ever deployed from the ISS. ...RemoveDEBRIS, a low Earth orbit test bed for determining the efficacy of active debris removal (ADR) systems, is a multinational effort involving space agencies, aerospace experts, and technologies from throughout Europe, Asia, Africa, and the U.S.
Technical Paper

Economics of Military Space Launching Systems

1967-02-01
670376
This paper presents a brief review of our present national launch vehicle inventory, and discusses briefly the economic characteristics of these systems. Continual emphasis should be placed upon the means of finding more economical launch vehicles, and potential concepts are discussed which may offer economic benefits to future military space operations. ...Continual emphasis should be placed upon the means of finding more economical launch vehicles, and potential concepts are discussed which may offer economic benefits to future military space operations. Military requirements for future systems are discussed in a general manner in stressing the need for a valid reliability-cost tradeoff. ...Continual emphasis should be placed upon the means of finding more economical launch vehicles, and potential concepts are discussed which may offer economic benefits to future military space operations.
Technical Paper

Space Shuttle Standard Launch Window

1986-10-01
861649
To maximize the efficiency of the Space Transportation System as a shared cargo launch system and to enhance the mixability and launch opportunities for payloads carried on the Space Shuttle, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has developed a shared cargo standard launch window. ...To maximize the efficiency of the Space Transportation System as a shared cargo launch system and to enhance the mixability and launch opportunities for payloads carried on the Space Shuttle, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has developed a shared cargo standard launch window. ...To maximize the efficiency of the Space Transportation System as a shared cargo launch system and to enhance the mixability and launch opportunities for payloads carried on the Space Shuttle, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has developed a shared cargo standard launch window. The launch window is based on the transfer orbit Sun angle requirements of an established, common class of geosynchronous communications satellites.
Standard

Actuation System Data Summary for Missiles and Launch Vehicles

1995-08-01
CURRENT
AIR1855A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) includes all missile and launch vehicle actuation systems, including electrohydraulic, electropneumatic, and electromechanical types. ...The data for many systems are not complete. As more information becomes available, periodic updates will be issued to complete existing data sheets and to add new ones. ...An index by type of vehicle and by type of actuation system is included. The actual data sheets in the body of the report are organized in alphabetical order.
Technical Paper

NASA's Space Launch Initiative: A Program Overview

2002-03-04
2002-01-1267
For fiscal year 2001 (FY2001), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) reorganized its efforts to develop a 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) under the new Space Launch Initiative program. The stated goal of the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) is the development of new technologies over a five-year period that will lead to a decision mid-decade on whether to move forward with a new design, which will eventually replace the space shuttle. ...To achieve this safety margin, it is widely accepted that the new vehicle will require a complete crew escape system. By comparison, the space shuttle only has escape capabilities to 20,000 feet. Other capabilities include 10 person launch crews (compared to 170 today), one-week turnaround time (compared to five months) and hundreds of flights per year (compared to fewer than 10 times per year today).1 The question is, can SLI's research funds lead to technology which will be able to develop a 2nd generation RLV capable of all (or some) of the above listed objectives? ...For fiscal year 2001 (FY2001), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) reorganized its efforts to develop a 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) under the new Space Launch Initiative program.
Technical Paper

Space Shuttle Launch Pad Rescue Plan

1991-07-01
911569
The final preparation of the Space Shuttle Orbiter for flight involves the loading of large quantities of hazardous propellants. ...Rapid movement of personnel is enhanced by the use of the slidewire system and specially prepared armored personnel carriers. The end result, as will be discussed in this paper, is a system that provides a reasonable chance of survival should an emergency occur during late countdown at the pad. ...The end result, as will be discussed in this paper, is a system that provides a reasonable chance of survival should an emergency occur during late countdown at the pad.
Technical Paper

A Propellant Depletion System for Propulsion Shutdown on the Atlas Space Launch Vehicle

1964-01-01
640491
In order to establish a propellant depletion system for propulsion shutdown on the Atlas space launch vehicle, design criteria have been closely examined to meet the unique environmental requirements in this particular application. ...This paper describes the Atlas space launch vehicle fuel depletion system currently under development and test at General Dynamics/Astronautics. ...A survey of the different types of liquid level sensing systems in common usage has indicated that the magnetostrictive sensor combines the best qualifications available, and also possesses a high degree of ruggedness and resistance to shock.
Technical Paper

Case for a Multidisciplinary Modeling Platform for Space Launch Risk Analysis

2007-09-17
2007-01-3864
With the development and licensing of inland, state-owned spaceports, and the ongoing development of several new reusable launch vehicles (RLV), the space launch industry is undergoing a significant transformation. As a result, there is a need to reevaluate current launch risk analysis methodologies and practices, which so far have revolved around the conservative casualty expectation analysis developed in the 1950s. ...As a result, there is a need to reevaluate current launch risk analysis methodologies and practices, which so far have revolved around the conservative casualty expectation analysis developed in the 1950s. ...Furthermore, an important aspect of launch risk analysis which gives rise to its complexity is its multidisciplinary nature. In analyzing such risk, the physics of and interactions between the varieties of hazards produced by launch vehicles breakups must be captured, modeled and, their effects analyzed.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Composite Fairing Structures for Space Launch Vehicles

1990-09-01
901836
Current space transportation systems such as expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) and the reusable Space Transportation System (space shuttle) are very expensive. ...Current space transportation systems such as expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) and the reusable Space Transportation System (space shuttle) are very expensive. In some instances they are based on 10 to 20 year old technologies. ...It requires extensive design, analysis, testing, and systems integration activity. To maintain a competitive posture in the launch service industry, three years ago McDonnell Douglas Space System Company (MDSSC) initiated a research and development program on composite fairings.
Technical Paper

Space Shuttle Launch Entry Suit Thermal Performance Evaluation

1993-07-01
932297
Comments of the Space Shuttle crew indicate that the Launch Entry Suit (LES) may provide inadequate cooling before launch and after reentry. ...The NASA Johnson Space Center(JSC) Crew and Thermal System Division (CTSD) executed a two phase study, analysis and testing, to investigate this problem. ...Comments of the Space Shuttle crew indicate that the Launch Entry Suit (LES) may provide inadequate cooling before launch and after reentry. During these periods some crewmembers experienced thermal discomfort induced by localized cabin heating, middeck experiments, and crewmembers' body heat and humidity.
Technical Paper

Reusable Space Launch Vehicle Concepts: Outlook 1965

1965-02-01
650801
A critical review of the principal issues governing the feasibility of reusable space launch vehicle systems, i.e., propulsion, structural weights, heat protection, and costs, is presented from the vantage point of 1965. ...Mixed HTO and all-rocket VTO vehicles exhibit total 10-year program costs that do not differ by more than 10 percent for realistic launch rates. The 10-year program costs of the reusable systems considered will be greater than those of existing boosters at a traffic rate of 300,000 lb of payload to orbit per year, but doubling the traffic rate would make it possible to justify the development of reusable vehicles on an economic basis alone. ...The dependence on flight Mach number of the fuel specific impulse of airbreathing propulsion systems, i.e., turbo.-jets, ramjets, and scramjets, is reduced to a dependence on staging velocity of effective specific impulse values, including flight losses, to provide performance relations for preliminary design use.
Technical Paper

The Titan IV launch Vehicle

1989-09-01
892306
Titan launch vehicles have been contributing to our national space accomplishments for more than 20 years. ...The dependability and versatility of Titan vehicles have been demonstrated by their selection for various missions, including strategic intercontinental ballistic missile weapon systems, manned Gemini space flights, NASA interplanetary missions, and critical national security programs. ...As the U.S. space program has grown, the Titan family has expanded to meet the changing requirements. The dependability and versatility of Titan vehicles have been demonstrated by their selection for various missions, including strategic intercontinental ballistic missile weapon systems, manned Gemini space flights, NASA interplanetary missions, and critical national security programs.
Technical Paper

Advanced Launch Vehicles

1984-10-01
841623
These missions include the support of strategic national commitments, large space power systems, and interplanetary and lunar exploration. Nearer term missions will utilize the Space Shuttle and its direct derivatives, the Shuttle-Derived Vehicles (SDV), currently being defined under NASA and DOD sponsored studies. ...The new developments required, such as a new large liquid booster engine and Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) modifications, are identified. New candidate launch locations and launch facility requirements are also discussed. ...Vehicles capable of lifting very large and heavy payloads into low earth orbit (LEO) will be needed to support certain large-scale space missions being considered for the late 1990-2000 time period. These missions include the support of strategic national commitments, large space power systems, and interplanetary and lunar exploration.
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