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ISS launches largest satellite to date to test active debris removal

2018-07-05
Astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) have launched RemoveDEBRIS, the first satellite with space debris-removal capabilities and the largest satellite ever deployed from the ISS. ...RemoveDEBRIS, a low Earth orbit test bed for determining the efficacy of active debris removal (ADR) systems, is a multinational effort involving space agencies, aerospace experts, and technologies from throughout Europe, Asia, Africa, and the U.S.
Technical Paper

Air-Breathing Reusable Launchers

1967-02-01
670390
Performance is examined of a re-usable space launcher system suitable for European development with an air-breathing first stage and rocket-propelled second stage. ...It is concluded that a partly air-breathing re-usable launcher system is likely to emerge as a by-product of air transport development.
Technical Paper

Screening Tests on Cryogenic Insulations for Reusable Launchers

2005-07-11
2005-01-2899
Low-cost access to space is an objective that next generation launchers are greatly pursuing since last years. Cryogenic insulations, as a part of highly reusable thermo-mechanical architectures, can contribute to significantly withstand repeated operative life cycles without remarkable degradation, so increasing the system reusability.
Technical Paper

NASA's Space Launch Initiative: A Program Overview

2002-03-04
2002-01-1267
For fiscal year 2001 (FY2001), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) reorganized its efforts to develop a 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) under the new Space Launch Initiative program. The stated goal of the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) is the development of new technologies over a five-year period that will lead to a decision mid-decade on whether to move forward with a new design, which will eventually replace the space shuttle. ...For fiscal year 2001 (FY2001), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) reorganized its efforts to develop a 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) under the new Space Launch Initiative program. ...The stated goal of the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) is the development of new technologies over a five-year period that will lead to a decision mid-decade on whether to move forward with a new design, which will eventually replace the space shuttle. This new vehicle will be 100 times safer and 10 times cheaper than today's launch systems.
Technical Paper

Economics of Military Space Launching Systems

1967-02-01
670376
This paper presents a brief review of our present national launch vehicle inventory, and discusses briefly the economic characteristics of these systems. Continual emphasis should be placed upon the means of finding more economical launch vehicles, and potential concepts are discussed which may offer economic benefits to future military space operations. ...Continual emphasis should be placed upon the means of finding more economical launch vehicles, and potential concepts are discussed which may offer economic benefits to future military space operations. ...Continual emphasis should be placed upon the means of finding more economical launch vehicles, and potential concepts are discussed which may offer economic benefits to future military space operations. Military requirements for future systems are discussed in a general manner in stressing the need for a valid reliability-cost tradeoff.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Composite Fairing Structures for Space Launch Vehicles

1990-09-01
901836
Current space transportation systems such as expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) and the reusable Space Transportation System (space shuttle) are very expensive. ...To maintain a competitive posture in the launch service industry, three years ago McDonnell Douglas Space System Company (MDSSC) initiated a research and development program on composite fairings. ...Current space transportation systems such as expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) and the reusable Space Transportation System (space shuttle) are very expensive. In some instances they are based on 10 to 20 year old technologies.
Technical Paper

Case for a Multidisciplinary Modeling Platform for Space Launch Risk Analysis

2007-09-17
2007-01-3864
With the development and licensing of inland, state-owned spaceports, and the ongoing development of several new reusable launch vehicles (RLV), the space launch industry is undergoing a significant transformation. As a result, there is a need to reevaluate current launch risk analysis methodologies and practices, which so far have revolved around the conservative casualty expectation analysis developed in the 1950s. ...As a result, there is a need to reevaluate current launch risk analysis methodologies and practices, which so far have revolved around the conservative casualty expectation analysis developed in the 1950s. ...Furthermore, an important aspect of launch risk analysis which gives rise to its complexity is its multidisciplinary nature. In analyzing such risk, the physics of and interactions between the varieties of hazards produced by launch vehicles breakups must be captured, modeled and, their effects analyzed.
Technical Paper

Reusable Space Launch Vehicle Concepts: Outlook 1965

1965-02-01
650801
A critical review of the principal issues governing the feasibility of reusable space launch vehicle systems, i.e., propulsion, structural weights, heat protection, and costs, is presented from the vantage point of 1965. ...The worth of technological improvements is evaluated quantitatively in terms of the cost savings produced in different reusable launch vehicle programs. Salient results of the analysis and comparison include the following: Operationally and economically, a 10,000-lb-payload reusable HTO vehicle with an airbreathing first stage and a rocket second stage is very attractive, but a scramjet second stage to orbit is relatively unattractive economically. ...Mixed HTO and all-rocket VTO vehicles exhibit total 10-year program costs that do not differ by more than 10 percent for realistic launch rates. The 10-year program costs of the reusable systems considered will be greater than those of existing boosters at a traffic rate of 300,000 lb of payload to orbit per year, but doubling the traffic rate would make it possible to justify the development of reusable vehicles on an economic basis alone.
Technical Paper

Wing Leading Edges for Air Breathing Launchers

1994-06-01
941583
Actively cooled and re-radiative leading edges were investigated as typical thermal protection elements for thermally high loaded areas of advanced launchers. A performance trade-off led to the selection of a C/SiC thermostructural concept. Mechanical and thermal analyses demonstrated the adequacy of the selected design.
Technical Paper

Developments on Cryogenic Tank Insulation for Reusable Launchers

2004-07-19
2004-01-2565
Reusability of next generation launchers needs that cryogenic insulation of LH2 and LOX tanks is able to withstand without significant degradation critical environments experienced especially during pre-launch and re-entry phases.
Technical Paper

Space Shuttle Launch Pad Rescue Plan

1991-07-01
911569
The final preparation of the Space Shuttle Orbiter for flight involves the loading of large quantities of hazardous propellants.
Technical Paper

Automatic and Manual Checkout of the Atlas Space Launch Vehicle Pneumatic System

1964-01-01
640479
The system characteristics of the Atlas ground and airborne pneumatic system are discussed, with special emphasis on the functional testing of the vehicle and the associated ground support equipment at the launch site. Description of the automatic and manual check-out of the Atlas space launch vehicle pneumatic system is presented, including basic test philosophy and hardware description. ...The monocoque structure and the flight mission requirements of the Atlas space launch vehicle (SLV) has resulted in very stringent pressure and flow control conditions for its pneumatic system.
Technical Paper

A Propellant Depletion System for Propulsion Shutdown on the Atlas Space Launch Vehicle

1964-01-01
640491
In order to establish a propellant depletion system for propulsion shutdown on the Atlas space launch vehicle, design criteria have been closely examined to meet the unique environmental requirements in this particular application. ...This paper describes the Atlas space launch vehicle fuel depletion system currently under development and test at General Dynamics/Astronautics.
Technical Paper

Two Stage Fully Reusable Space Launch Vehicle Configuration and Performance Trades

1991-04-01
911184
There is a need for a space launch system that can provide ready, reliable, unencumbered access to space. The need exists for a highly reliable launch system that can operate from numerous available sites, that can provide all azimuth launch capability, that is fully reusable, and that can carry significant payloads into low earth orbit. ...The need exists for a highly reliable launch system that can operate from numerous available sites, that can provide all azimuth launch capability, that is fully reusable, and that can carry significant payloads into low earth orbit.
Technical Paper

Space Shuttle Standard Launch Window

1986-10-01
861649
To maximize the efficiency of the Space Transportation System as a shared cargo launch system and to enhance the mixability and launch opportunities for payloads carried on the Space Shuttle, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has developed a shared cargo standard launch window. ...To maximize the efficiency of the Space Transportation System as a shared cargo launch system and to enhance the mixability and launch opportunities for payloads carried on the Space Shuttle, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has developed a shared cargo standard launch window. ...To maximize the efficiency of the Space Transportation System as a shared cargo launch system and to enhance the mixability and launch opportunities for payloads carried on the Space Shuttle, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has developed a shared cargo standard launch window. The launch window is based on the transfer orbit Sun angle requirements of an established, common class of geosynchronous communications satellites.
Technical Paper

Space Shuttle Launch Entry Suit Thermal Performance Evaluation

1993-07-01
932297
Comments of the Space Shuttle crew indicate that the Launch Entry Suit (LES) may provide inadequate cooling before launch and after reentry. ...Comments of the Space Shuttle crew indicate that the Launch Entry Suit (LES) may provide inadequate cooling before launch and after reentry. During these periods some crewmembers experienced thermal discomfort induced by localized cabin heating, middeck experiments, and crewmembers' body heat and humidity. ...The NASA Johnson Space Center(JSC) Crew and Thermal System Division (CTSD) executed a two phase study, analysis and testing, to investigate this problem.
Technical Paper

Space Laboratories

2001-07-09
2001-01-2142
This paper presents a review of the development and evolution of space laboratories. Laboratories in space constitute the unique and necessary working environment in which researchers conduct scientific experiments, engineering tests, and technology development missions. ...The United States (US) and (former) Soviet Union pioneered space laboratories with the Skylab and Salyut series stations. In the Space Shuttle era, the European Space Agency’s (ESA) SpaceLab, the commercial SpaceHab, and shuttle middeck lockers provided experiment accommodations for a broad range of disciplines. ...In the Space Shuttle era, the European Space Agency’s (ESA) SpaceLab, the commercial SpaceHab, and shuttle middeck lockers provided experiment accommodations for a broad range of disciplines.
Technical Paper

NASA's Advanced Space Transportation System Launch Vehicles

1990-04-01
901046
The Next Manned Transportation System studies focus on concepts to extend, complement, or replace the Shuttle after the turn of the century; assessment for this system apprises three distinctly different paths: Shuttle Evolution, a new Personnel Launch System, and an Advanced Manned Launch System. The Space Transfer Vehicle studies seek the methods to satisfy the robotic and human exploration missions. ...Extending the capabilities provided by Space Station Freedom, the President envisioned a return to the Moon to establish a permanent manned station, followed by manned missions to Mars early in the next century. ...These are bold new goals for the U.S. Space Program. They are, however, built on a solid technical programmatic planning base. These demanding but realistic mission objectives reflect the highest technical and engineering capabilities residing within the government and our aerospace industry.
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