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Technical Paper

Views on Future Space Exploration

Two courses for the future exist - earth orbital missions or manned planetary exploration. Defense, one of the original objectives of the space program, is best served by satellite and near-earth manned operations. ...Despite the success of the space sciences satellites and the imminent payoff of the Apollo manned missions, we have seen a de-emphasis on the space program. ...Despite the success of the space sciences satellites and the imminent payoff of the Apollo manned missions, we have seen a de-emphasis on the space program. De-emphasis, here, really means no new starts rather than cut-backs in existing programs.
Technical Paper

Long Term Life Support for Space Exploration

NASA has updated its planning baseline for these missions, (1) and has identified improved life support as one of the key capabilities needed to enable long duration missions of exploration. This paper discusses the question of life support for the exploration missions of the future, and suggests a strategy for the development of these critical systems. ...Recent Presidential directives have intensified the study of human participation in Solar System Exploration within the United States. NASA has updated its planning baseline for these missions, (1) and has identified improved life support as one of the key capabilities needed to enable long duration missions of exploration.
Technical Paper

Electrical System Options for Space Exploration

The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) will need a wide variety of manned systems with requirements significantly different than those for existing systems. ...This paper discusses the need for a space power utility concept, and examines the impact of this concept on the engineering of space power systems. ...Almost all existing space power systems distribute low voltage direct current. Although they have been very successful, increasing power system requirements in recent years have exposed their inherent limitations and led to the proposal of a number of alternatives including high voltage dc, and ac at various frequencies.
Technical Paper

Longer Range Space Exploration Possibilities

As the Apollo Program reaches an active flight phase it becomes important to identify the alternatives which seem most practical for space exploration of the future. Steps beyond the Apollo Lunar Landing which will provide flexible capabilities for missions following the 1970 time period are discussed. ...With the option of manned exploration of Mars and Venus, including exobiological and geological surface exploration on Mars, promise of much scientific return appears within our operational grasp. ...This experience will establish man's capability to operate effectively for extended periods and provide enhancement of experimental space activities. This phase is treated as a logical space program element preceding actual accomplishment of manned missions to the nearby planets.
Technical Paper

Advanced Regenerative Life Support for Space Exploration

Advanced regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technology was identified by NASA as enabling for space exploration. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) mass savings of over 700,000 pounds (320,000 kg) per year are expected for a lunar outpost crew of eight as compared with ECLSS systems which are currently flying. ...This paper explores ECLSS technologies which show promise for reducing LEO mass for long range exploration initiatives. The roles of In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) are discussed.
Technical Paper

ISRU Technologies to Support Human Space Exploration

In-situ resource utilization (ISRU) is an important part of current mission architectures for both a return to the Moon and the eventual human exploration of Mars. ORBITEC has developed and demonstrated an innovative direct energy processing approach for carbon-reduction of lunar and Martian regolith that can operate in a nearly closed-loop manner.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Support Equipment in Space Exploration

With support equipment now being needed in space operation, a radical change is being made to the support industry. This paper describes these changes in respect to hydraulic support equipment for space applications. ...This paper describes these changes in respect to hydraulic support equipment for space applications. To meet new requirements for present ground missile servicing equipment, new units of higher performance are required. ...Other types of nonstandard hydraulic controls for space support would be the use of pulse rockets for both vehicle and personnel movements.
Technical Paper

A Mission Success Model for Unmanned Space Exploration

A MISSION SUCCESS MODEL has been developed which provides a more realistic picture of mission success while avoiding the customary cumbersome and time consumming operational methods. The model is based upon the expected data returned (Probabilistic) which is integrated with respect to time for each scientific experiment and summed for the mission. The computer technique utilizes the machine as a comprehensive data bank. The expected data return, when combined with the computer technique, provides greatly improved visibility of mission success probability.
Technical Paper

Waste Compaction Technology Development for Human Space Exploration Missions

Waste management is a critical component of life support systems for manned space exploration. Human occupied spacecraft and extraterrestrial habitats must be able to effectively manage the waste generated throughout the entire mission duration. ...The design specifications of the compactors being developed at NASA Ames Research Center are based on NASA's initial 18-day lunar sortie missions using the Orion spacecraft as outlined in the new Space Exploration Initiative. This paper describes the compactor design methodology and concepts as well as a description of the current prototype hardware developed at NASA Ames for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. ...NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle usually referred to as the CEV, will have limited volume for equipment and crew.
Technical Paper

Ignition Delay of Combustible Materials in Space Exploration Atmospheres

It was found that the ignition time in the proposed space exploration atmosphere was reduced by 27% compared to standard conditions. This finding indicates that materials will be more susceptible to ignition (shorter ignition delay) in exploration atmospheres when an external heat flux is applied. ...Material flammability is an important factor in determining the pressure and composition (fraction of oxygen and nitrogen) of the atmosphere in the habitable volume of exploration vehicles and habitats. The method chosen in this work to quantify material flammability is by its ease of ignition and the minimum (critical) radiant heat flux for ignition. ...Tests were conducted at standard atmospheric pressure and oxygen concentration as well as at the proposed exploration environment of lower pressure (58.6 kPa) and high oxygen concentration (32%). It was found that the ignition time in the proposed space exploration atmosphere was reduced by 27% compared to standard conditions.
Technical Paper

Energy Storage: Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems for Space Exploration

TAS-I is historically mainly involved in missions related to the space exploration with the presence of astronauts. A typical example is the exploration of the Moon with the installation on the Moon surface of a base inclusive of pressurized habitats and rovers. ...The research is being carried out by Thales Alenia Space Italy, in the framework of a regional program called STEPS. Thales Alenia Space has been supported in this activity by Politecnico di Torino and Hysytech.TAS-I with the associated team, has developed a 10 kW breadboard of a RFC System and in parallel a preliminary concept of a RFCS for a Pressurized Lunar Rover. ...Future exploration missions, including human missions to the Moon and Mars, are expected to have increasingly demanding operational requirements.
Journal Article

Radiation Shielding for Space Exploration: the MoMa - COUNT Programme

In the frame of the multi-disciplinary programme MoMa-COUNT [2], multi-functional protections for human space exploration are being investigated, paying particular attention to flexible materials, selected also for their single excellent structural, thermal and other environmental performances. ...These flexible materials in general have poorly known space radiation properties, whose lack of characterisation propagates the uncertainty about the shielding efficiency against the radiation environment on the whole spacecraft protection means. ...The consequent evaluation of their shielding efficiency, as well as of that of the overall shields, is based on flight experiments performed in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and the re-entry capsule Foton. In parallel, supporting dedicated ground experiments in accelerators, as well as Monte Carlo simulations, are performed.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Design of Health Care Systems for Space Exploration

Health of space explorers is a requisite for success of human exploration missions and, potentially, for return of explorers to Earth. ...Continuous, long term existence and complex, potentially hazardous tasks in space environments will challenge health of explorers. Immediate return to Earth will not be possible. ...Health care systems are being designed to address these concerns, starting from the requirement to maintain health of crew members throughout all mission phases, and the assumption that clinical (medical), preventive, and occupational health care will be necessary in space as on Earth. Systems for medical care, health monitoring and countermeasures, and environmental monitoring and countermeasures are being designed.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Pressure Suit Systems Architectures for the Space Exploration Enterprise

The space exploration enterprise that will lead to human exploration on Mars requires pressure suit system capabilities and characteristics that change significantly over time and between different missions and mission phases. ...These capabilities must be provided within tight budget constraints and severely limited launch mass and volume, and at a pace that supports NASA's over-all exploration timeline. As a result, it has not been obvious whether the use of a single pressure suit system (like Apollo) or combinations of multiple pressure suit designs (like Shuttle) will offer the best balance among life cycle cost, risk, and performance. ...Requirements were analyzed for key missions and mission phases from initial CEV flights to Mars surface exploration, and nine different architectural approaches to meeting those requirements through the life of the enterprise were developed.
Journal Article

Utilizing Team Productivity Models in the Selection of Space Exploration Teams

In the field of space exploration, the throughput is the number of milestones of the mission accomplished as well as the potential survival during extreme events (due to failures or other unplanned events). ...This paper outlines our initial research about the tools used to analyze team productivity to be applied specifically to a space exploration mission. A simple system dynamics model is developed representing the team profile and their activities.
Technical Paper

Strategies for the Development and Validation of Viable Terrestrial Analogs to Space Exploration

Recent attention has also been focused on the seafloor as a potential analog to space exploration scenarios. As these terrestrial analogs have received more attention, some of the research, development and economic burden has been shifted from traditional sources to valid ground-based test platforms, conserving considerable, and increasingly limited, resources. ...Such missions, carried out with well conceived and measurable designs, have the potential of saving space exploration resources by flying designs already well proven and thoroughly tested by rich and effective, high fidelity terrestrial analogs.
Technical Paper

ECLSS Instrumentation Technology Development for the Space Exploration Initiative

The availability of real time, automated, and reliable atmosphere and water monitoring instrumentation within the timeframe of future manned lunar and Mars missions is vital to the success of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). For these missions, with durations measured in years, the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) must be properly instrumented to assure the crew that the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the atmosphere and water are within ranges that are healthy and safe. ...To lay the groundwork for this definition phase, ECLSS instrumentation is discussed by outlining the types of sensors used on past space flights and indicating where improvements, innovation, and new developments may be required.