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Journal Article

Remotely Administered Psychoacoustic Test for sUAS Noise to Gauge Feasibility of Remote UAM Noise Study

2023-05-08
2023-01-1106
This first phase, described here, was a Feasibility Test to compare human subject responses with a previous in-person psychoacoustic test that found an annoyance response difference between small Uncrewed Aerial System (sUAS) noise and ground vehicle noise. This paper discusses the Feasibility Test online layout, sound calibration method, software development, stimuli selection, test subject recruitment, and test administration.
Journal Article

An Optimization of Small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) Image Based Scanning Techniques for Mapping Accident Sites

2019-04-02
2019-01-0427
Small unmanned aerial systems have gained prominence in their use as tools for mapping the 3-dimensional characteristics of accident sites. Typically, the process of mapping an accident site involves taking a series of overlapping, high resolution photographs of the site, and using photogrammetric software to create a point cloud or mesh of the site. This process, known as image-based scanning, is explored and analyzed in this paper. A mock accident site was created that included a stopped vehicle, a bicycle, and a ladder. These objects represent items commonly found at accident sites. The accident site was then documented with several different unmanned aerial vehicles at differing altitudes, with differing flight patterns, and with different flight control software. The photographs taken with the unmanned aerial vehicles were then processed with photogrammetry software using different methods to scale and align the point clouds.
Article

Insitu ScanEagle sUAS boosts Coast Guard mission effectiveness

2018-06-15
Coast Guard officials are expanding their deployment of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) operations, after achieving a record-breaking year for drug interdiction using Insitu’s ScanEagle sUAS aboard a single National Security Cutter, the Stratton. ...Coast Guard officials are expanding their deployment of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) operations, after achieving a record-breaking year for drug interdiction using Insitu’s ScanEagle sUAS aboard a single National Security Cutter, the Stratton.
Journal Article

Three Case Studies on Small Uncrewed Aerial Systems Near Midair Collisions with Aircraft: An Evidence-Based Approach for Using Objective Uncrewed Aerial Systems Detection Technology

2023-06-14
By 2025, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) predicts the sUAS fleet to number nearly 2.4 million units. As sUAS operations expand within the National Airspace System (NAS), so too does the probability of near midair collisions (NMACs) between sUAS and aircraft. ...As sUAS operations expand within the National Airspace System (NAS), so too does the probability of near midair collisions (NMACs) between sUAS and aircraft. Currently, the primary means of recognizing sUAS NMACs rely on pilots to visually spot and evade conflicting sUAS. ...Abstract Small uncrewed aircraft systems (sUAS) growth continues for recreational and commercial applications. By 2025, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) predicts the sUAS fleet to number nearly 2.4 million units.
Technical Paper

Air-Launched Expendable Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Increasing Power and Extending Endurance to Meet Operational Needs

2010-11-02
2010-01-1799
The Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) has driven the requirement and technology development of expendable, air-launched, Small Unmanned Aircraft System (SUAS) for the past six years. As the Air Force lead command for SUAS, AFSOC intends to use this capability to extend the range of on-board sensors, see below the weather, track multiple targets, increase target acquisition accuracy and provide direct support to ground teams. ...Today, state of the art technology for Group 1 (0-20 lbs) and Group 2 SUAS (21 - 55 lbs), provides approximately 25 - 60 minutes of endurance with conventional lithium ion / lithium polymer batteries. ...This paper presents a notional concept of employment for expendable air launched SUAVs coupled with a relevant example of state-of-the-art SUAS technology. The end goal will highlight realistic technology requirements for industry to develop an optimized system engineering design in the next two years that combines current cutting edge technology (i.e. super-capacitors, nano/micro-fuel cells, hybrid solutions and traditional batteries solutions) with industry safety standards for effective mission accomplishment.
Technical Paper

Estimating Unmanned Aerial System Pose Using Cast Shadows and Computer Vision Techniques

2024-03-05
2024-01-1931
This approach capitalizes on the shadows cast by a light source affixed to a sUAS. The establishment of a communication bridge between the sUAS and a ground station using the Robot Operating System (ROS) facilitates the execution of resource-intensive computational tasks such as real-time feature extraction using OpenCV libraries. ...One of these problems is localization in dynamically illuminated environments, like one might find when a small unmanned aerial system (sUAS) equipped with a lighting payload attempts to autonomously navigate inside a dark, damaged structure. ...As a result, sUAS pose estimates often accumulate errors without bound. This work will examine the merits and demerits inherent in conventional or prevailing sUAS self-localization techniques in dark environments.
Journal Article

Predictive Analytics for Modeling UAS Safety Risk

2013-09-17
2013-01-2104
This paper illustrates the development of an Object-Oriented Bayesian Network (OOBN) to integrate the safety risks contributing to a notional “lost link” scenario for a small UAS (sUAS). This hypothetical case investigates the possibility of a “lost link” for the sUAS during the bridge inspection mission leading to a collision of the sUAS with the bridge. ...This hypothetical case investigates the possibility of a “lost link” for the sUAS during the bridge inspection mission leading to a collision of the sUAS with the bridge. Hazard causal factors associated with the air vehicle, operations, airmen and the environment may be combined in an integrative safety risk model.
Journal Article

Projecting the Impact of Aircraft Design Decisions on the Performance of a Fuel Cell Power and Energy System in Unmanned Aircraft Systems

2012-10-22
2012-01-2178
Over the past seven years Protonex has developed fuel cell power systems for a number of different SUAS, creating an empirical database and methodology suitable for future SUAS design efforts. This methodology centers on estimating the weight fractions of the power conversion and energy storage systems in comparison to the overall vehicle weight. ...These outside requirements play a particularly important role in the design of Small UAS (SUAS) P&E systems where the fixed weight of the fuel cell plant may approach or exceed the weight of the fuel utilized.
Magazine

Aerospace & Defense Technology: September 2020

2020-09-01
Radiation-Tolerant FPGAs Solve Spacecraft Design Challenges Thermal Management for Directed Energy Weapons New Diamond Super-Material Enhances Aircraft Survivability Development of a Secure Private Neural Network Capability From DC to Daylight - How Innovations in Microwave Absorbers Shield the Warfighter Army Advances Materials for New Low-Profile Antenna Directed-Energy System to Defeat Small Unmanned Aircraft System Swarms New weapons technology is needed to combat the proliferation of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS), miniaturization of sensor technology, and advancement of UAS swarm logic that will enable swarms of sUAS to threaten US airbases by the 2025 timeframe. ...Radiation-Tolerant FPGAs Solve Spacecraft Design Challenges Thermal Management for Directed Energy Weapons New Diamond Super-Material Enhances Aircraft Survivability Development of a Secure Private Neural Network Capability From DC to Daylight - How Innovations in Microwave Absorbers Shield the Warfighter Army Advances Materials for New Low-Profile Antenna Directed-Energy System to Defeat Small Unmanned Aircraft System Swarms New weapons technology is needed to combat the proliferation of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS), miniaturization of sensor technology, and advancement of UAS swarm logic that will enable swarms of sUAS to threaten US airbases by the 2025 timeframe. WIAMan Technology Demonstrator Sensor Codes Conforming to International Organization for Standardization/Technical Standard (ISO/TS) 13499 The Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan) Project is in the process of developing anthropomorphic test devices specific to the underbody blast environment and requires ISO Channel Codes specific to this test dummy.
Collection

SAE International Journal of Aerospace 2023 Special Issue: Uncrewed Aircraft Systems and Autonomy

2023-11-01
Volume 16, Issue 3, 2023 All the papers in this special issue relate to topics ranging from case studies on small UAS (sUAS) near midair collisions with aircraft, review of simulation fidelity for autonomous vehicles, assured aerial autonomy, novel geometry for tangential omnidirectional flight, and flight dynamics modeling—to prognostics in autonomous aircraft operations.
Magazine

Aerospace & Defense Technology: August 2020

2020-08-01
Reverse Engineering the Boeing E-3 Sentry's Secondary Flight Controls Vanadium - A Green Metal Critical to Aerospace and Clean Energy Thrust in Space - The Nuances of Thruster Valve Design 3D Printing Aerodynamic Improvements Cryogenic-Capable Isolators Improve the Performance of Millimeter-Wave Systems by Lowering Noise Levels Detection with Quantum Radar A new radar prototype utilizes quantum entanglement as a method of object detection. Preliminary Development of an Integrated Mobility, Lethality, and Survivability Soldier Performance Testing Platform Developing a methodology that incorporates objective measures of performance and is sensitive to changes in soldier-system equipment could help guide equipment manufacturers during product development and acquisition. Bore Elevation and Azimuth Measurement System (Beams) Newly developed laser apparatus verifies that the pointing accuracy requirement of a weapon's fire control system is met.
Standard

Linee guida per l’impiego della AQAP 2110 in un Sistema di gestione per la qualità 9100

2024-02-16
CURRENT
IA9137_ITIT
Il presente documento è stato preparato e rilasciato al fine di fornire informazioni e linee guida sull’applicazione della AQAP-2110, laddove il fornitore si attenga a quanto previsto dalla 9100. Il presente documento viene pubblicato come AQAP-2110-SRD.2 e IA9137. Il documento è stato sviluppato congiuntamente dalla NATO e dai rappresentanti dell’industria affinché sia utilizzato dalla NATO e dall’industria per facilitare l’utilizzo e la comprensione del rapporto tra la AQAP-2110 e la 9100. Le AQAP possono costituire un requisito qualora un Paese acquirente utilizzi le Foreign Military Sales (FMS) come proprio metodo di approvvigionamento. Esso mira a contribuire all’interpretazione condivisa dei requisiti della AQAP-2110 da parte dell’acquirente e del fornitore 9100. Il suo contenuto non ha natura giuridica o contrattuale, né sostituisce, integra o annulla alcuno dei requisiti della AQAP-2110 o della 9100.
Standard

Sistemas de Gestão da Qualidade - Requisitos de Auditoria para Organizações de Aviação, Aeroespacial e Defesa

2016-10-31
CURRENT
AS9101F_PTBR
Para garantir a satisfação dos clientes as organizações de defesa, aviação e aeroespacial devem fornecer e melhorar continuamente produtos e serviços, seguros e confiáveis, que atendam ou excedam os requisitos legais e regulamentares aplicáveis dos clientes. A globalização da indústria e a diversidade resultante das necessidades e expectativas regionais e nacionais têm dificultado este objetivo. As organizações têm o desafio de comprar produtos e serviços de fornecedores em todo o mundo, em todos os níveis da cadeia de suprimento. Os fornecedores têm o desafio de fornecer produtos e serviços a vários clientes com diferentes necessidades e expectativas de qualidade.
Standard

Sistemas de Gestão da Qualidade - Requisitos de Auditoria para Organizações de Aviação, Aeroespacial e Defesa

2016-10-31
CURRENT
AS91
Para garantir a satisfação dos clientes as organizações de defesa, aviação e aeroespacial devem fornecer e melhorar continuamente produtos e serviços, seguros e confiáveis, que atendam ou excedam os requisitos legais e regulamentares aplicáveis dos clientes. A globalização da indústria e a diversidade resultante das necessidades e expectativas regionais e nacionais têm dificultado este objetivo. As organizações têm o desafio de comprar produtos e serviços de fornecedores em todo o mundo, em todos os níveis da cadeia de suprimento. Os fornecedores têm o desafio de fornecer produtos e serviços a vários clientes com diferentes necessidades e expectativas de qualidade.
Standard

CNS/ATM AVIONICS, FUNCTIONAL ALLOCATION AND RECOMMENDED ARCHITECTURES

2001-01-15
CURRENT
ARINC660A
This standard expands ARINC 660 to include industry-defined architectures for the CNS/ATM operating environment. These architectures are intended to meet long-term requirements (e.g., ADS-B, CPDLC, etc.) and provide growth for the future. Airlines support the implementation of these architectures for the long-term. This standard represents broad airline consensus for developing avionics equipment providing CNS/ATM operating capabilities.
Magazine

Aerospace Engineering 2012-06-13

2012-06-13
The big boys go for plastic While it is true that the latest developments in advanced alloy manufacturing techniques can deliver structures and components that meet all the product requirements that aerospace primes need for new aircraft, there can be no escaping the fact that there is now an unstoppable momentum building up for the plastic airplane.
Standard

Brazing, Silver For Use Up to 400°F (204°C)

1947-12-01
HISTORICAL
AMS2665
This specification covers the engineering requirements for producing brazed joints in parts fabricated from steels, iron alloys, nickel alloys, cobalt alloys, and copper alloys by use of silver alloys, and the properties of such joints. This procedure has been used typically for joints requiring high strength up to 400 degrees F (204 degrees C), but usage is not limited to such applications.
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