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Journal Article

An Optimization of Small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) Image Based Scanning Techniques for Mapping Accident Sites

2019-04-02
2019-01-0427
Small unmanned aerial systems have gained prominence in their use as tools for mapping the 3-dimensional characteristics of accident sites. Typically, the process of mapping an accident site involves taking a series of overlapping, high resolution photographs of the site, and using photogrammetric software to create a point cloud or mesh of the site. This process, known as image-based scanning, is explored and analyzed in this paper. A mock accident site was created that included a stopped vehicle, a bicycle, and a ladder. These objects represent items commonly found at accident sites. The accident site was then documented with several different unmanned aerial vehicles at differing altitudes, with differing flight patterns, and with different flight control software. The photographs taken with the unmanned aerial vehicles were then processed with photogrammetry software using different methods to scale and align the point clouds.
Article

Insitu ScanEagle sUAS boosts Coast Guard mission effectiveness

2018-06-15
Coast Guard officials are expanding their deployment of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) operations, after achieving a record-breaking year for drug interdiction using Insitu’s ScanEagle sUAS aboard a single National Security Cutter, the Stratton. ...Coast Guard officials are expanding their deployment of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) operations, after achieving a record-breaking year for drug interdiction using Insitu’s ScanEagle sUAS aboard a single National Security Cutter, the Stratton.
Technical Paper

Air-Launched Expendable Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Increasing Power and Extending Endurance to Meet Operational Needs

2010-11-02
2010-01-1799
The Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) has driven the requirement and technology development of expendable, air-launched, Small Unmanned Aircraft System (SUAS) for the past six years. As the Air Force lead command for SUAS, AFSOC intends to use this capability to extend the range of on-board sensors, see below the weather, track multiple targets, increase target acquisition accuracy and provide direct support to ground teams. ...Today, state of the art technology for Group 1 (0-20 lbs) and Group 2 SUAS (21 - 55 lbs), provides approximately 25 - 60 minutes of endurance with conventional lithium ion / lithium polymer batteries. ...This paper presents a notional concept of employment for expendable air launched SUAVs coupled with a relevant example of state-of-the-art SUAS technology. The end goal will highlight realistic technology requirements for industry to develop an optimized system engineering design in the next two years that combines current cutting edge technology (i.e. super-capacitors, nano/micro-fuel cells, hybrid solutions and traditional batteries solutions) with industry safety standards for effective mission accomplishment.
Journal Article

Predictive Analytics for Modeling UAS Safety Risk

2013-09-17
2013-01-2104
This paper illustrates the development of an Object-Oriented Bayesian Network (OOBN) to integrate the safety risks contributing to a notional “lost link” scenario for a small UAS (sUAS). This hypothetical case investigates the possibility of a “lost link” for the sUAS during the bridge inspection mission leading to a collision of the sUAS with the bridge. ...This hypothetical case investigates the possibility of a “lost link” for the sUAS during the bridge inspection mission leading to a collision of the sUAS with the bridge. Hazard causal factors associated with the air vehicle, operations, airmen and the environment may be combined in an integrative safety risk model.
Journal Article

Projecting the Impact of Aircraft Design Decisions on the Performance of a Fuel Cell Power and Energy System in Unmanned Aircraft Systems

2012-10-22
2012-01-2178
Over the past seven years Protonex has developed fuel cell power systems for a number of different SUAS, creating an empirical database and methodology suitable for future SUAS design efforts. This methodology centers on estimating the weight fractions of the power conversion and energy storage systems in comparison to the overall vehicle weight. ...These outside requirements play a particularly important role in the design of Small UAS (SUAS) P&E systems where the fixed weight of the fuel cell plant may approach or exceed the weight of the fuel utilized.
Magazine

Aerospace & Defense Technology: September 2020

2020-09-01
Radiation-Tolerant FPGAs Solve Spacecraft Design Challenges Thermal Management for Directed Energy Weapons New Diamond Super-Material Enhances Aircraft Survivability Development of a Secure Private Neural Network Capability From DC to Daylight - How Innovations in Microwave Absorbers Shield the Warfighter Army Advances Materials for New Low-Profile Antenna Directed-Energy System to Defeat Small Unmanned Aircraft System Swarms New weapons technology is needed to combat the proliferation of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS), miniaturization of sensor technology, and advancement of UAS swarm logic that will enable swarms of sUAS to threaten US airbases by the 2025 timeframe. ...Radiation-Tolerant FPGAs Solve Spacecraft Design Challenges Thermal Management for Directed Energy Weapons New Diamond Super-Material Enhances Aircraft Survivability Development of a Secure Private Neural Network Capability From DC to Daylight - How Innovations in Microwave Absorbers Shield the Warfighter Army Advances Materials for New Low-Profile Antenna Directed-Energy System to Defeat Small Unmanned Aircraft System Swarms New weapons technology is needed to combat the proliferation of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS), miniaturization of sensor technology, and advancement of UAS swarm logic that will enable swarms of sUAS to threaten US airbases by the 2025 timeframe. WIAMan Technology Demonstrator Sensor Codes Conforming to International Organization for Standardization/Technical Standard (ISO/TS) 13499 The Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan) Project is in the process of developing anthropomorphic test devices specific to the underbody blast environment and requires ISO Channel Codes specific to this test dummy.
Magazine

Aerospace & Defense Technology: August 2020

2020-08-01
Reverse Engineering the Boeing E-3 Sentry's Secondary Flight Controls Vanadium - A Green Metal Critical to Aerospace and Clean Energy Thrust in Space - The Nuances of Thruster Valve Design 3D Printing Aerodynamic Improvements Cryogenic-Capable Isolators Improve the Performance of Millimeter-Wave Systems by Lowering Noise Levels Detection with Quantum Radar A new radar prototype utilizes quantum entanglement as a method of object detection. Preliminary Development of an Integrated Mobility, Lethality, and Survivability Soldier Performance Testing Platform Developing a methodology that incorporates objective measures of performance and is sensitive to changes in soldier-system equipment could help guide equipment manufacturers during product development and acquisition. Bore Elevation and Azimuth Measurement System (Beams) Newly developed laser apparatus verifies that the pointing accuracy requirement of a weapon's fire control system is met.
Technical Paper

A Trajectory Optimization Model To Support Aviation Systems Analysis

1997-10-01
975600
A new program is introduced that provides optimization capability for airline routes flown between two cities. The Mission Generator (MG) is a multipurpose program designed to accommodate a variety of problems involving multiple aircraft flights within the US airspace system. The goal of the program is to offer a conceptual-level set of results for a simulated network of operations of air transport vehicles. This network could represent a fleet of vehicles operated by a specific air carrier, or a collection of similar vehicles flown under different dispatch and routing conditions. The optimization capability gives the analyst a means to investigate the impact of free flight operations for a certain route, or an entire set of air carrier operations. The Mission Generator includes the effects of winds in the computation of the optimal trajectories, and offers methods to address special use airspace violations.
Technical Paper

Structural and Manufacturing Considerations for a Research Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

2009-11-10
2009-01-3196
This paper discusses the various factors that were addressed in the planning process for the design and construction of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) destined for use as a multirole research aircraft for Clarkson University. Details related to mission requirements, cost, construction materials, manufacturing methods, and regulatory requirements will be discussed. The resulting airframe, structure, manufacturing, and control system plan of action will be laid out. An overview of anticipated FAA regulations will be presented, and the need to design for conformity to said regulations addressed. Emphasis will be placed on design and manufacturing decisions relating to the extensive use of composite materials throughout the aircraft.
Technical Paper

Design, Manufacturing, and Testing of a Research Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

2011-10-18
2011-01-2721
This paper details the novel manufacturing processes for an experimental, all-composite, research UAV to be used by Clarkson University. Discussions will include an in depth report on the selection of materials, manufacturing methods, and the implementation and results of the fabrication procedures for the structural components along with the challenges of constructing an aircraft capable of meeting multiple FAA regulatory requirements.
Standard

Sistemas de Gestão da Qualidade - Requisitos de Auditoria para Organizações de Aviação, Aeroespacial e Defesa

2016-10-31
CURRENT
AS9101F_PTBR
Para garantir a satisfação dos clientes as organizações de defesa, aviação e aeroespacial devem fornecer e melhorar continuamente produtos e serviços, seguros e confiáveis, que atendam ou excedam os requisitos legais e regulamentares aplicáveis dos clientes. A globalização da indústria e a diversidade resultante das necessidades e expectativas regionais e nacionais têm dificultado este objetivo. As organizações têm o desafio de comprar produtos e serviços de fornecedores em todo o mundo, em todos os níveis da cadeia de suprimento. Os fornecedores têm o desafio de fornecer produtos e serviços a vários clientes com diferentes necessidades e expectativas de qualidade.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Investigation of the Sum of Weighted Accelerations

1989-09-01
892320
Knowledge of the force history is crucial for evaluating the performance of structures and mechanical components. Since direct force measurement is impossible or impractical in many cases, alternative methods must be used. For an elastic body, a method has been developed employing the equations of motion which provide an expression for the applied force as a sum of weighted accelerations (SWA). Since this method is relatively new, its sensitivity to errors caused by inaccurate accelerometer data, or poor gauge placement, must be characterized and well understood for simple structures before the SWA can be applied to large, complex structures. In this paper, these error sources are investigated independently through numerical simulations of a simple beam. The conclusion reached is that the predictive capability of the SWA is not significantly affected by small errors in the accelerometer data or non-Ideal gauge placement.
Technical Paper

The C-17 Global Air Traffic Management (GATM) Application

2000-10-10
2000-01-5578
As airlines utilize Global Air Traffic Management (GATM) to acquire fuel and time efficient routes, so must military aircraft also incorporate this emerging commercial technology in order to fly these same cost-effective routes. This paper describes the integration of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Communication/Navigation equipment into the C-17 airframe, the methods used and the results achieved. Challenges met, such as source selection, bus architecture compatibility, logic integration with secure communications, environmental compatibility, is presented with their solutions.
Technical Paper

Development of a Proposed International Standard for Certification of Aircraft to High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF)

1994-03-01
940062
Avionic systems performing critical functions in modern aircraft are potentially susceptible to the hazards of electromagnetic radiation from ground and airborne transmitters. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requested that the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) coordinate the development of procedures and guidance material which can be used during the aircraft certification process to ensure adequate protection against High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF). This paper addresses the technical challenge of drafting a certification procedure and guidance standard, and the management process used by the SAE subcommittee AE4R to converge a diverse range of opinions by its international membership in the shortest possible time.
Technical Paper

Human Engineering Process in Systems Design and Integration

1996-10-01
965533
This paper discusses a top-down analysis methodology for the design, development and evaluation of advanced technological systems like those being considered for Free Flight, the Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiment (AGATE), or the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) program. In order to ensure a safe and efficient introduction and integration of those technologies, it is generally accepted that human factors engineering concerns must be raised and addressed from the beginning and throughout the research and development cycle. History indicates that human factors engineering concerns were normally addressed too late, contributing significantly to the well known “automation problem” in commercial aviation. In response to the potential for negative side effects advanced technology design guidelines have been developed. This paper focuses on one such guideline concerning sound systems engineering principles.
Standard

CNS/ATM AVIONICS, FUNCTIONAL ALLOCATION AND RECOMMENDED ARCHITECTURES

2001-01-15
CURRENT
ARINC660A
This standard expands ARINC 660 to include industry-defined architectures for the CNS/ATM operating environment. These architectures are intended to meet long-term requirements (e.g., ADS-B, CPDLC, etc.) and provide growth for the future. Airlines support the implementation of these architectures for the long-term. This standard represents broad airline consensus for developing avionics equipment providing CNS/ATM operating capabilities.
Journal Article

Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation of Collaborative Air Traffic Flow Management using Brahms

2009-11-10
2009-01-3202
The air traffic demand on the US national airspace frequently exceeds its available capacity. In current operations, the Air Traffic Service Provider designs and implements air traffic management initiatives with minimal interaction with the airlines. NASA and its partners have developed a new collaborative air traffic flow management concept of operations that involves the users of the airspace to a greater degree. In this paper, we describe an agent-based simulation of the new concept of operations and our planned experimentation to determine if the new concept of operations will lead to better utilization of the national airspace.
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