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Technical Paper

Engine Stability Sensor

It has been proved from many studies and applications that, to improve fuel economy, is necessary to operate near lean limit without exceeding it, to avoid unstable engine running and resulting car surging. On this purpose, besides a precise and flexible control system, an engine stability sensor, to adopt closed loop control strategies, is needed. A research has been carried out on different measurement methodologies with the aim of developing a reliable and low cost stability sensor to be used on production cars. For this reason sensors yet applied in automotive field, like accelerometer and pick-up or oriented to this application, like ring pressure sensors, have been used. As basis of comparison the cyclic dispersion,measured with a pressure sensor inside the combustion chamber, has been considered.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Valve Train Variability in Diesel Engines

The continuously decreasing emission limits lead to a growing importance of exhaust aftertreatment in Diesel engines. Hence, methods for achieving a rapid catalyst light-off after engine cold start and for maintaining the catalyst temperature during low load operation will become more and more necessary. The present work evaluates several valve timing strategies concerning their ability for doing so. For this purpose, simulations as well as experimental investigations were conducted. A special focus of simulation was on pointing out the relevance of exhaust temperature, mass flow and enthalpy for these thermomanagement tasks. An increase of exhaust temperature is beneficial for both catalyst heat-up and maintaining catalyst temperature. In case of the exhaust mass flow, high values are advantageous only in case of a catalyst heat-up process, while maintaining catalyst temperature is supported by a low mass flow.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Strength Effect of Thread Forming Process in Cast Aluminum

Two thread forming processes, rolling and cutting, were studied for their effects on fatigue in cast aluminum 319-T7. Material was excised from cylinder blocks and tested in rotating-bending fatigue in the form of unnotched and notched specimens. The notched specimens were prepared by either rolling or cutting to replicate threads in production-intent parts. Cut threads exhibited conventional notch behavior for notch sensitive materials. In contrast, plastic deformation induced by rolling created residual compressive stresses in the notch root and significantly improved fatigue strength to the point that most of the rolled specimens broke outside the notch. Fractographic and metallographic investigation showed that cracks at the root of rolled notches were deflected upon initiation. This lengthened their incubation period, which effectively increased fatigue resistance.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy Logic Employed in an Autonomous ICC Vehicle

The AICC is an assisting system for controlling relative speed and distance between two vehicles in the same lane. The AICC system may be considered as an extension of a traditional cruise control, not only keeping a fixed speed of the vehicle, but correcting it also to that of a slower one ahead. The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the design of the intelligent cruise control system involving the automatic control of throttle position and braking systems. There is much evidence nowadays that fuzzy approaches to real problems, where the linear control theory fails or can't provide an available and robust design solution, are often the best alternative to more familiar schemes.
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty Diesel Engine and EAS Modelling and Validation for a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation System

Faced with the need to reduce development time and cost in view of additional system complexity driven by ever more stringent emission regulations, the Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) simulation increasingly proves itself to be an advantageous tool not only in automotive companies but also in the off-road engine industry. The approach offers the possibility to analyze new engine control systems with fewer expensive engine dynamometer experiments and test drives. Thus, development cycles can be shortened and development costs reduced. This paper presents the development of an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the correspondent Exhaust Aftertreatment System (EAS) model, its deployment on a HiL system and its application to pre-calibrate the engine for different vehicle cycles. A zero-dimensional mean value approach was chosen to guarantee adequate real-time factors for the coupling between the models and the Engine Control Unit (ECU).
Technical Paper

High Power Discharge Combustion Effects on Fuel Consumption, Emissions, and Catalyst Heating

A key element to achieving vehicle emission certification for most light-duty vehicles using spark-ignition engine technology is prompt catalyst warming. Emission mitigation largely does not occur while the catalyst is below its “light-off temperature”, which takes a certain time to achieve when the engine starts from a cold condition. If the catalyst takes too long to light-off, the vehicle could fail its emission certification; it is necessary to minimize the catalyst warm up period to mitigate emissions as quickly as possible. One technique used to minimize catalyst warm up is to calibrate the engine in such a way that it delivers high temperature exhaust. At idle or low speed/low-load conditions, this can be done by retarding spark timing with a corresponding increase in fuel flow rate and / or leaning the mixture. Both approaches, however, encounter limits as combustion stability degrades and / or nitrogen oxide emissions rise excessively.
Journal Article

Immersion Quenching Simulation of Realistic Cylinder Head Geometry

In this paper, a recently improved Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology for virtual prototyping of the heat treatment of cast aluminum parts, above most of cylinder heads of internal combustion engines (ICE), is presented. The comparison between measurement data and numerical results has been carried out to simulate the real time immersion quenching cooling process of realistic cylinder head structure using the commercial CFD code AVL FIRE®. The Eulerian multi-fluid modeling approach is used to handle the boiling flow and the heat transfer between the heated structure and the sub-cooled liquid. While for the fluid region governing equations are solved for each phase separately, only the energy equation is solved in the solid region. Heat transfer coefficients depend on the boiling regimes which are separated by the Leidenfrost temperature.
Technical Paper

Influence of Different Oil Properties on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines

In recent years concern has arisen over a new combustion anomaly, which was not commonly associated with naturally aspirated engines. This phenomenon referred to as Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI), which often leads to potentially damaging peak cylinder pressures, is the most important factor limiting further downsizing and the potential CO2 benefits that it could bring. Previous studies have identified several potential triggers for pre-ignition where engine oil seems to have an important influence. Many studies [1], [2] have reported that detached oil droplets from the piston crevice volume lead to auto-ignition prior to spark ignition. Furthermore, wall wetting and subsequently oil dilution [3] and changes in the oil properties by impinging fuel on the cylinder wall seem to have a significant influence in terms of accumulation and detachment of oil-fuel droplets in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Investigations on the Sound Quality of Engines with Low Cylinder Numbers

Due to future directives of the European Union regarding fuel consumption and CO2 emissions the automotive industry is forced to develop new and unconventional technologies. These include for example stop-start-systems, cylinder deactivation or even reduction of the number of cylinders which however lead to unusual acoustical perceptions and customer complaints. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the sound character of engines with low numbers of cylinders (2 and 3 cylinders) and also the differences to the character of the more common 4-cylinder engines. Psychoacoustic parameters are used to describe and understand the differences. Based on the gained knowledge possible potentials for improvement can be derived in the future. The used data base consists of artificial head recordings of car interior noise according to defined driving conditions measured on the AVL test track. Naturally, there are more recordings available for 4-cylinder engines than for 2- and 3-cylinder engines.
Technical Paper

Key Steps and Methods in the Design and Development of Low Noise Engines

The next generation of automotive engines has to meet 2004 emission limits, ideally with improved fuel economy and with noise emission which is at least 3 dBA below the current status. Using both simulation and experimental analysis these challenging requirements can only be fulfilled by clearly defining all key steps in NVH development and by applying suitable technological methods. The development procedure discussed in this paper is characterised by several aspects: two stage prediction procedure fully integrated in the design process, combustion development with a definite focus on noise, a closed loop between simulation and test bed development and consideration of noise in the calibration of engine and drivetrain management systems. Apart from meeting target noise levels, noise quality is the reference parameter which is continuously evaluated by means of the AVL Annoyance Index.
Technical Paper

Local Deformation of Hollow Crankshafts under Transient Conditions and their Effect on Durability and Slider Bearing Behavior

This paper describes a numerical study of the effect of hollow crankshafts on crankshaft local strength and durability as well as slider bearing contact behavior. Crankshaft dynamic simulation for durability is still a challenging task, although numerical methods are already worldwide established and integrated part of nearly every standard engine development process. Such standard methods are based on flexible multi-body dynamic simulation, combined with Finite Element analysis and multi-axial fatigue evaluation. They use different levels of simplification and consider the most influencing phenomena relevant for durability. Lightweight design and downsizing require more and more detailed methods due to higher deformation of the crankshaft. This is especially true for hollow shafts, as present in motorsport design or aerospace applications, but also for standard engine having high potential for significant weight savings.
Journal Article

Measurement of Piston Friction with a Floating Liner Engine for Heavy-Duty Applications

The further increase in the efficiency of heavy-duty engines is essential in order to reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector. This is also valid for the future use of alternative fuels, which can be CO2-neutral, but can cause higher total costs of ownership due to higher prices and limited availability. In addition to thermodynamic optimization, the reduction of mechanical losses is of great importance. In particular, there is a high potential in the piston bore interface, since continuously increasing cylinder pressures have a strong influence on the frictional and lateral piston forces. To meet these future challenges of increasing heavy-duty engine efficiency, AVL has developed a floating liner engine for heavy-duty applications based on its tried and tested passenger car floating liner concept.
Journal Article

Measures to Reduce Particulate Emissions from Gasoline DI engines

Particulate emission reduction has long been a challenge for diesel engines as the diesel diffusion combustion process can generate high levels of soot which is one of the main constituents of particulate matter. Gasoline engines use a pre-mixed combustion process which produces negligible levels of soot, so particulate emissions have not been an issue for gasoline engines, particularly with modern port fuel injected (PFI) engines which provide excellent mixture quality. Future European and US emissions standards will include more stringent particulate limits for gasoline engines to protect against increases in airborne particulate levels due to the more widespread use of gasoline direct injection (GDI). While GDI engines are typically more efficient than PFI engines, they emit higher particulate levels, but still meet the current particulate standards.
Technical Paper

MiL-Based Calibration and Validation of Diesel-ECU Models Using Emission and Fuel Consumption Prediction during Dynamic Warm-Up Tests (NEDC)

A calibration and validation workflow will be presented in this paper, which utilizes common static global models for fuel consumption, NOx and soot. Due to the applicability for warm-up tests, e. g. New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), the models need to predict the temperature influence and will be fitted with measuring data from a conditioned engine test bed. The applied model structure - consisting of a number of global data-based sub-models - is configured especially for the requirements of multi-injection strategies of common rail systems. Additionally common global models for several constant coolant water temperature levels are generated and the workflow tool supports the combination and segmentation of global nominal map with temperature correction maps for seamless and direct ECU setting.
Technical Paper

Multi-Physics Simulation Model for Noise and Vibration Effects in Hybrid Vehicle Powertrain

Over the past 30 years, simulation of the N&V (Noise and Vibration) behaviour of automotive drivelines became an integral part of the powertrain development process. With current and future HEVs (Hybrid-Electrical Vehicles), additional phenomena and effects have entered the scene and need to be taken into account during layout/design as well as optimization phase. Beside effects directly associated with the e-components (namely electric whistle and whine), torque changes caused by activation/deactivation of the e-machine give rise to vibration issues (e.g. driveline shuffle or clonk) as well. This is in particular true for transient operation conditions like boosting and recuperation. Moreover, aspects of starting the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) using the built-in e-machine in conjunction with the dynamic behaviour of torsional decoupling devices become increasingly important. In order to cope with above-mentioned effects a multi-physics simulation approach is required.
Journal Article

NVH Challenges and Solutions for Vehicles with Low CO2 Emission

Driven by worldwide climate change, governments are introducing more stringent emission regulations with particular focus on fuel saving for CO₂ emission reduction. Downsizing and weight reduction are two of the main drivers to achieve these demanding regulations. Both aspects however might have a strong negative effect on the overall vehicle NVH behavior. Weight reduction directly influences NVH due to reduction of absorption and damping material and due to light-weight design affecting the dynamic responses of powertrain and vehicle structures. Engine downsizing however has multiple negative effects on NVH. Beside higher vibrations and speed irregularities due to lower cylinder numbers and displacements also reduction of sound quality is a critical topic that will be handled within this publication.
Technical Paper

New Kinematic Design Methodology and Dynamic Simulation of Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) System

Mechanical variable valve systems are being increasingly used for modern combustion engines. It is typical for such systems that the cam and valve are connected via intermediate levers. Different maximum valve lifts and duration can be achieved with the same cam profile. The intermediate levers increase the system inertia and reduce the overall stiffness. Such systems offer more flexibility, but it is more complex to create optimal design compared to the conventional systems. In this paper a new kinematic design methodology for a CVVL (Continuously Variable Valve Lift) system is presented. Additionally, dynamic analysis of the valve train system is performed. The investigated valve train is completely developed and patented by OEM. The main characteristic of the CVVL system is a set of intermediate levers between the cam and the finger follower like ( 1 , 2 ). One cam drives two intake valves over a set of levers.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Mixture Formation and Performance in a Direct Injection CNG Engine

This paper presents the results of part of the research activity carried out by the Politecnico di Torino and AVL List GmbH as part of the European Community InGAS Collaborative Project. The work was aimed at developing a combustion system for a mono-fuel turbocharged CNG engine, with specific focus on performance, fuel economy and emissions. A numerical and experimental analysis of the jet development and mixture formation in an optically accessible, single cylinder engine is presented in the paper. The experimental investigations were performed at the AVL laboratories by means of the planar laser-induced fluorescence technique, and revealed a cycle-to-cycle jet shape variability that depended, amongst others, on the injector characteristics and in-cylinder backpressure. Moreover, the mixing mechanism had to be optimized over a wide range of operating conditions, under both stratified lean and homogeneous stoichiometric modes.
Technical Paper

On-board Optimization of Driveability Character Depending on Driver Style by Using a New Closed Loop Approach

The paper describes a new methodology for a closed loop driving style detection, a vehicle driveability character evaluation and a control unit for an adaptation of the vehicle character according to the driving style. During driving the vehicle character is adapted to the driver, using the potential of modern torque based drive by wire engine control systems of gasoline and diesel engines. The methodology leads to a completely new human - vehicle interaction, the driver creates his own unique vehicle character. The vehicle owner is able to form a mass produced vehicle according to his demands. A typical drawback of globalisation, a loss of identification between owner and product can be avoided by the presented methodology. The basic structure of the evaluation and control strategies are shown as well as objective and subjective results of increased driving pleasure and higher driver identification due to increased sportiness and spontaneity up to 100%.
Technical Paper

Performance Attributes for Root Cause Detection of Piston Induced Noise

Modern powertrain noise investigation in the development process and during trouble shooting is a combination of experiment and simulation. In simulation in recent years main focus was set on model completeness, consideration of all excitation mechanisms and efficient and stabile numerical algorithms. By that the total response of the virtual powertrain is already comparable to the overall noise level of the real powertrain. Actual challenge is to trace back the overall response to its main excitation and noise generating mechanism as well as to their main driving parameters to support the engineer not only in reaching absolute values, but also to derive the root cause of a response or potential problem and to get hints on how to improve the specific behavior. Approaches by parameter sensitivity studies are time consuming and not unambiguous.