Refine Your Search



Search Results

Technical Paper

Permanent Mold Gravity Casting Cylinder Block with Hypereutectic Aluminum Liners

A new category of hypereutectic aluminum liners, made by PM route is now available on the market (SILITEC) and it is successfully applied to high-pressure die casting process to produce open deck cylinder blocks. The claimed achievable engine performances over cast-iron liners (weight saving, reduction of oil consumption, optimal heat transfer, wear and friction losses reduction) justify the interest of automotive industry in developing such a technology. The paper will present the experience and the achieved results in permanent mold gravity casting with Silitec liners, where metal flow definition and temperature distribution control make the casting technique more challenging for the manufacturing of closed deck cylinder blocks.
Technical Paper

Piston Clearance Optimization using Thermo-elasto Hydrodynamic Simulation to Reduce Piston Slap Excitation and Friction Loss

The reduction of acoustic excitation due to piston slap as well as friction loss power and seizure are main issues when simulating the oil film lubricated piston - cylinder contacts of internal combustion engines. For a correct representation of the contact conditions between a piston skirt and a cylinder liner surface both the dynamics of the contacting flexible bodies, the shape of the contacting surfaces, the amount of available oil and the properties of the lubricant itself play important roles. Besides an appropriate representation of the hydrodynamic load carrying capacity using an averaged Reynolds equation with laminar flow conditions, the simulation has to use an appropriate asperity model to consider the mixed lubrication condition. The lubricant properties are in particular influenced by its thermal conditions.
Technical Paper

Plant Modeling for Closed Loop Combustion Control - A Thermodynamic Consistent and Real-Time Capable Approach

Direct injection Diesel engines are a propulsion technology that is continuously developed to meet emission standards. Great optimization potential lies in the combustion process itself. The application of closed loop combustion control allows reacting online to environmental conditions and stabilizing the combustion regarding performance and emissions. Dedicated real-time plant models help to develop and calibrate control algorithms in office and hardware in the loop environments. The present work describes a real-time capable, crank-angle resolved engine, cylinder and combustion model. The cylinder applies an 0D, two-zone approach and a phenomenological combustion model describes ignition delay, premixed and diffusive combustion. The latter is enhanced by a quasi-dimensional description of the injection spray. The model is validated with dedicated measurements. The plant model is applied in two use-cases for closed loop combustion control.
Journal Article

Simulation Methodology for Consideration of Injection System on Engine Noise Contribution

The target of the investigation is the particular influence of a fuel injection system and its components as a noise source in automotive engines. The applied methodology is demonstrated on an automotive Inline 4-cylinder Diesel engine using a common rail system. This methodology is targeted as an extension of a typical standard acoustic simulation approach for combustion engines. Such approaches basically use multi-body dynamic simulation with interacting FEM based flexible structures, where the main excitation crank train, timing drive, valve train system and piston secondary motion are considered. Within the extended approach the noise excitation of the hydraulic and mechanical parts of the entire fuel system is calculated and subsequently considered within the multi-body dynamic simulation for acoustic evaluation of structural vibrations.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Piston Ring Dynamics and Their Effect on Oil Consumption

The sealing effect of piston rings in reciprocating engines have a major impact on blow-by and lube oil consumption (LOC). The sealing is achieved by the gas forces acting on the top and back side of the rings. In addition, the load in the radial direction is increased by the initial ring tension. Inertia forces arising from the oscillating vertical stroke and shear forces due to the secondary piston movement influence this sealing effect by a reduction in contact pressure. Numerical simulation of the piston and ring dynamics solves this non-linear problem and predicts the interaction between piston secondary motion, axial ring motion, and 2nd land pressure. This paper describes the modeling of the cylinder kit dynamics of a six-cylinder truck diesel engine for several operating conditions and ring modifications. The influence of boundary conditions and adjustment parameters on piston ring motion and gas penetration was investigated.
Technical Paper

Single Cylinder 25kW Range Extender: Development for Lowest Vibrations and Compact Design Based on Existing Production Parts

The automotive trend towards increased levels of electrification is showing a clear direction for hybrid technologies. Nowadays Mild- and plug-in-hybrids open a very wide area of future developments whereas battery electric vehicles (BEV) are still evident but still perceived as niche products with limited production volumes. Nevertheless, major OEMs are working on these kinds of vehicles and have also brought such EV concepts into series production. All of these designs show a clear trend that, beside the topic of electric traction motor and energy storage systems, the internal combustion engine (ICE) is also coming into focus again. In many of these vehicles the range extender (RE) unit is foreseen as an emergency unit to recharge the batteries if the state of charge (SOC) is too low. One of the major advantages of a BEV over other designs is the very good acoustic behavior, so the NVH performance becomes the most challenging topic for RE development.
Technical Paper

Sound Optimization for Downsized Engines

Today, the number of downsized engines with two or three cylinders is increasing due to an increase in fuel efficiency. However, downsized engines exhibit unbalanced interior sound in the range of their optimal engine speed, largely because of their dominant engine orders. In particular, the sound of two-cylinder engines yields half the perceived engine speed of an equivalent four-cylinder engine at the same engine speed. As a result when driving, the two-cylinder engine would be shifted to higher gears much later, diminishing the expected fuel savings. This contribution presents an active in-car sound generation system that makes a two-cylinder engine sound like the more familiar four-cylinder engine. This is done by active, load-dependent playback of signals extracted from the engine vibration through a shaker mounted on the firewall. A blind test with audio experts indicates a significant reduction of the engine speed when shifting to a higher gear.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Emissions and Fuel Economy Requirements on Fuel Injection System and Noise of HD Diesel Engines

Despite the increasingly stringent emissions legislation, users and owners of commercial diesel vehicles are continually demanding that each new engine generation is more economical than the previous one. This is especially important for commercial vehicles where the majority of engines are in the 1-2ltr./cyl. class. The demands are being reflected in new engine designs with lower friction and improved structural stiffness, together with fuel systems having increased pressure capability, higher spill rates, injection rate shaping and advanced control features. These fuel system requirements have led to a variety of new fuel injection systems and in the search for increased injection pressure these fuel systems have placed greater demands on the engine, especially in areas such as the cylinder head and fuel system drive, sometimes with adverse effects on the combustion and fuel injection system induced mechanical noise.
Journal Article

Turbocharger Noise Quality Parameters for Efficient TC Noise Assessment and Refinement

Due to more challenging future emission legislations and the trend towards downsizing, the number of turbocharged (TC) engines, especially petrol engines, is steadily increasing. The usage of TC has high risk to cause different noise phenomena apparent in the vehicle interior which are often perceived as annoying for the passengers. In order to further improve consideration of TC topics in the development, objective judgment and monitoring of TC noise issues is of high importance. Therefore, objective parameters and corresponding tools that are especially focusing on TC noise phenomena have to be developed. One main target of these tools is to deliver an objective TC assessment in an efficient way and with minimum additional effort. Application of the criteria presented in this publication therefore allows acoustic engineers to judge the NVH behavior and annoyance of the TC with respect to its vehicle interior noise contribution.