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Technical Paper

Global Dynamic Models for XiL-based Calibration

The modern power train calibration process is characterized by shorter development cycles and a reduced number of prototypes. However, simultaneously exhaust aftertreatment and emission testing is becoming increasingly more sophisticated. The introduction of predictive simulation tools that represent the complete power train can likely contribute to improving the efficiency of the calibration process using an integral model based workflow. Engine models, which are purely based on complex physical principles, are usually not capable of real-time applications, especially if the simulation is focused on transient emission optimization. Methods, structures and the realization of a global dynamic real-time model are presented in this paper, combining physical knowledge and experimental models and also static and dynamic sub-structures. Such a model, with physical a priori information embedded in the model structure, provides excellent generalization capability.
Technical Paper

HEV Evaluation in Simulation Phase Based on Predicted Sound Behavior

Grown interest in complex modern Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) concepts has raised new challenges in the field of NVH. The switch between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Motor (EM) at low speeds produces undesirable vibrations and a sudden raise of noise levels that effects the sound quality and passenger comfort achieved by the close-to-silent electric powertrain operation. Starting the ICE in the most suitable driving situation to create a seamless transition between driving modes can be the key to minimize the NVH quality impact in driver and passenger’s perception in HEVs. To integrate this important aspect in the early stages of the development and design phase, simulation technologies can be used to address the customer acceptance. By analyzing NVH measurements, the different noise components of the vehicle operation can be separated into ICE-related noise, EM-related noise and driving noise.
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty Diesel Engine and EAS Modelling and Validation for a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation System

Faced with the need to reduce development time and cost in view of additional system complexity driven by ever more stringent emission regulations, the Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) simulation increasingly proves itself to be an advantageous tool not only in automotive companies but also in the off-road engine industry. The approach offers the possibility to analyze new engine control systems with fewer expensive engine dynamometer experiments and test drives. Thus, development cycles can be shortened and development costs reduced. This paper presents the development of an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the correspondent Exhaust Aftertreatment System (EAS) model, its deployment on a HiL system and its application to pre-calibrate the engine for different vehicle cycles. A zero-dimensional mean value approach was chosen to guarantee adequate real-time factors for the coupling between the models and the Engine Control Unit (ECU).
Technical Paper

High Power Discharge Combustion Effects on Fuel Consumption, Emissions, and Catalyst Heating

A key element to achieving vehicle emission certification for most light-duty vehicles using spark-ignition engine technology is prompt catalyst warming. Emission mitigation largely does not occur while the catalyst is below its “light-off temperature”, which takes a certain time to achieve when the engine starts from a cold condition. If the catalyst takes too long to light-off, the vehicle could fail its emission certification; it is necessary to minimize the catalyst warm up period to mitigate emissions as quickly as possible. One technique used to minimize catalyst warm up is to calibrate the engine in such a way that it delivers high temperature exhaust. At idle or low speed/low-load conditions, this can be done by retarding spark timing with a corresponding increase in fuel flow rate and / or leaning the mixture. Both approaches, however, encounter limits as combustion stability degrades and / or nitrogen oxide emissions rise excessively.
Technical Paper

Hybrid-Powertrain Development Approach to Reduce Number of Prototype Vehicles by Taking Right Decision in Early Development Phases on Engine Testbeds

Today’s automotive industry is changing rapidly towards environmentally friendly vehicle propulsion systems. All over the globe, legislative CO2 consumption targets are under discussion and partly already in force. Hybrid powertrain configurations are capable to lower fuel consumption and limit pollutant emissions compared to pure IC-Engine driven powertrains. Depending on boundary conditions a numerous of different hybrid topologies- and its control strategies are thinkable. Typical approach is to find the optimum hybrid layout and strategy, by performing certain technical design tasks in office simulation directly followed by vehicle prototype tests on the chassis dyno and road. This leads to a high number of prototype vehicles, overload on chassis dynos, time consuming road test and finally to tremendous costs. Our developed approach is using the engine testbed with simulation capabilities as bridging element between office and vehicle development environment.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen ICE Combustion Challenges

Hydrogen promises to provide some highly desired features for clean and efficient combustion, but harvesting efficiency and emission potentials as well as meeting engine durability requirements needs careful adaption of both, combustion system components and engine operation strategies. Key points for H2-ICE combustion are some specific and unique features of H2/air mixtures, among which – to name only a few – excellent dilutability, lean burn capability, low ignition energy and high molecular diffusivity and their consequences on ICE operation do play prominent roles. H2 admission via port or direct injection, compression ratio selection and injection timing provide a set of parameters to control combustion features.
Journal Article

Immersion Quenching Simulation of Realistic Cylinder Head Geometry

In this paper, a recently improved Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology for virtual prototyping of the heat treatment of cast aluminum parts, above most of cylinder heads of internal combustion engines (ICE), is presented. The comparison between measurement data and numerical results has been carried out to simulate the real time immersion quenching cooling process of realistic cylinder head structure using the commercial CFD code AVL FIRE®. The Eulerian multi-fluid modeling approach is used to handle the boiling flow and the heat transfer between the heated structure and the sub-cooled liquid. While for the fluid region governing equations are solved for each phase separately, only the energy equation is solved in the solid region. Heat transfer coefficients depend on the boiling regimes which are separated by the Leidenfrost temperature.
Technical Paper

Increased 2-Wheeler Development Efficiency by Using a New Dedicated Test System Solution

Fuel consumption is the most important contributor to the total cost of ownership for mass produced motorcycles. Therefore, best fuel economy is one main influencing criteria for a decision to purchase motorcycles. Furthermore, increasingly stringent emission legislations limit and additional OBD requirements must be fulfilled. A new combined test approach has been developed that minimizes accuracy losses in the development process which compensates for the variability of driving behavior in the chassis dyno environment. An engine testbed combined with a belt drive transmission enables operation in single engine or in Powerpack (i.e. internal combustion engine including transmission) configuration as well as under steady state or dynamic operating mode. Since the belt drive transmission is integrated in the test rig, realistic inertia situation for the single engine operating test configuration is ensured.
Technical Paper

Industrialization of Base Calibration Methods for ECU-functions Exemplary for Air Charge Determination

Today's calibration process for ECU functions is often based on a wide variety of proprietary tools and individual expert knowledge of calibration engineers. Automatic calibration with an industrialized tool chain provides high potential to reduce testbed time, calibration time and project costs. Based on an efficient measurement procedure in combination with an offline calibration methodology the capability is validated, e.g. for calibrating the ECU function “Air Charge Determination” for SI engines. In this article the implementation, in a series production project of a major OEM, is shown. The whole workflow - which can also be applied to other calibration tasks - will be described in detail. Presented here will be how General Motors Corporation (GM) is able to speed up the calibration of the ECU functions, whilst maintaining at least the same quality of calibration as before, by the use of this tool chain.
Technical Paper

Influence of Different Oil Properties on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines

In recent years concern has arisen over a new combustion anomaly, which was not commonly associated with naturally aspirated engines. This phenomenon referred to as Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI), which often leads to potentially damaging peak cylinder pressures, is the most important factor limiting further downsizing and the potential CO2 benefits that it could bring. Previous studies have identified several potential triggers for pre-ignition where engine oil seems to have an important influence. Many studies [1], [2] have reported that detached oil droplets from the piston crevice volume lead to auto-ignition prior to spark ignition. Furthermore, wall wetting and subsequently oil dilution [3] and changes in the oil properties by impinging fuel on the cylinder wall seem to have a significant influence in terms of accumulation and detachment of oil-fuel droplets in the combustion chamber.
Journal Article

Integrated 1D/2D/3D Simulation of Fuel Injection and Nozzle Cavitation

To promote advanced combustion strategies complying with stringent emission regulations of CI engines, computational models have to accurately predict the injector inner flow and cavitation development in the nozzle. This paper describes a coupled 1D/2D/3D modeling technique for the simulation of fuel flow and nozzle cavitation in diesel injection systems. The new technique comprises 1D fuel flow, 2D multi-body dynamics and 3D modeling of nozzle inner flow using a multi-fluid method. The 1D/2D model of the common rail injector is created with AVL software Boost-Hydsim. The computational mesh including the nozzle sac with spray holes is generated with AVL meshing tool Fame. 3D multi-phase calculations are performed with AVL software FIRE. The co-simulation procedure is controlled by Boost-Hydsim. Initially Hydsim performs a standalone 1D simulation until the needle lift reaches a prescribed tolerance (typically 2 to 5 μm).
Technical Paper

Investigations on the Sound Quality of Engines with Low Cylinder Numbers

Due to future directives of the European Union regarding fuel consumption and CO2 emissions the automotive industry is forced to develop new and unconventional technologies. These include for example stop-start-systems, cylinder deactivation or even reduction of the number of cylinders which however lead to unusual acoustical perceptions and customer complaints. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the sound character of engines with low numbers of cylinders (2 and 3 cylinders) and also the differences to the character of the more common 4-cylinder engines. Psychoacoustic parameters are used to describe and understand the differences. Based on the gained knowledge possible potentials for improvement can be derived in the future. The used data base consists of artificial head recordings of car interior noise according to defined driving conditions measured on the AVL test track. Naturally, there are more recordings available for 4-cylinder engines than for 2- and 3-cylinder engines.
Technical Paper

Key Steps and Methods in the Design and Development of Low Noise Engines

The next generation of automotive engines has to meet 2004 emission limits, ideally with improved fuel economy and with noise emission which is at least 3 dBA below the current status. Using both simulation and experimental analysis these challenging requirements can only be fulfilled by clearly defining all key steps in NVH development and by applying suitable technological methods. The development procedure discussed in this paper is characterised by several aspects: two stage prediction procedure fully integrated in the design process, combustion development with a definite focus on noise, a closed loop between simulation and test bed development and consideration of noise in the calibration of engine and drivetrain management systems. Apart from meeting target noise levels, noise quality is the reference parameter which is continuously evaluated by means of the AVL Annoyance Index.
Technical Paper

LES Simulation of Direct Injection SI-Engine In-Cylinder Flow

The present paper deals with the application of the LES approach to in-cylinder flow modeling. The main target is to study cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) using 3D-CFD simulation. The engine model is based on a spark-ignited single-cylinder research engine. The results presented in this paper cover the motored regime aiming at analysis of the cycle-resolved local flow properties at the spark plug close to firing top dead center. The results presented in this paper suggest that the LES approach adopted in the present study is working well and that it predicts CCV and that the qualitative trends are in-line with established knowledge of internal combustion engine (ICE) in-cylinder flow. The results are evaluated from a statistical point of view based on calculations of many consecutive cycles (at least 10).
Technical Paper

Local Deformation of Hollow Crankshafts under Transient Conditions and their Effect on Durability and Slider Bearing Behavior

This paper describes a numerical study of the effect of hollow crankshafts on crankshaft local strength and durability as well as slider bearing contact behavior. Crankshaft dynamic simulation for durability is still a challenging task, although numerical methods are already worldwide established and integrated part of nearly every standard engine development process. Such standard methods are based on flexible multi-body dynamic simulation, combined with Finite Element analysis and multi-axial fatigue evaluation. They use different levels of simplification and consider the most influencing phenomena relevant for durability. Lightweight design and downsizing require more and more detailed methods due to higher deformation of the crankshaft. This is especially true for hollow shafts, as present in motorsport design or aerospace applications, but also for standard engine having high potential for significant weight savings.
Technical Paper

Lubrication Testing Methodology for Vehicle Class and Usage Based Validation

System lubrication in automotive powertrains is a growing topic for development engineers. Hybrid and pure combustion system complexity increases in search of improved efficiency and better control strategy, increasing the number of components with lubrication demand and the interplay between them, while fully electric systems drive for higher input speeds to increase e-motor efficiency, increasing bearing and gear feed rate demands. Added to this, many e-axle and hybrid systems are in development with a shared medium and circuit for e-motor cooling and transmission lubrication. Through all this, the lubricant forms a common thread and is a fundamental component in the system, but no standardized tests can provide a suitable methodology to investigate the adequate lubrication of components at powertrain level, to support the final planned vehicle usage.
Technical Paper

Measurement Approaches for Variable Compression Ratio Systems

In the ongoing competition of powertrain concepts the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) will also have to demonstrate its potential for increased efficiency [1]. Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Systems for Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) can make an important contribution to meeting stringent global fuel economy and CO2 standards. Using such technology a CO2 reduction of between 5% and 9% in the World Harmonized Light-Duty Vehicle Test Cycle (WLTC) are achievable, depending on vehicle class, load profile and power rating [2]. This paper provides a detailed description of the measurement approaches that are used during development of the AVL Dual Mode VCSTM and other VCR systems in fired operation. Results obtained from these measurements are typically used to calibrate or verify simulation models, which themselves are an integral part of the development of these systems [3].
Journal Article

Measurement of Piston Friction with a Floating Liner Engine for Heavy-Duty Applications

The further increase in the efficiency of heavy-duty engines is essential in order to reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector. This is also valid for the future use of alternative fuels, which can be CO2-neutral, but can cause higher total costs of ownership due to higher prices and limited availability. In addition to thermodynamic optimization, the reduction of mechanical losses is of great importance. In particular, there is a high potential in the piston bore interface, since continuously increasing cylinder pressures have a strong influence on the frictional and lateral piston forces. To meet these future challenges of increasing heavy-duty engine efficiency, AVL has developed a floating liner engine for heavy-duty applications based on its tried and tested passenger car floating liner concept.
Journal Article

Measures to Reduce Particulate Emissions from Gasoline DI engines

Particulate emission reduction has long been a challenge for diesel engines as the diesel diffusion combustion process can generate high levels of soot which is one of the main constituents of particulate matter. Gasoline engines use a pre-mixed combustion process which produces negligible levels of soot, so particulate emissions have not been an issue for gasoline engines, particularly with modern port fuel injected (PFI) engines which provide excellent mixture quality. Future European and US emissions standards will include more stringent particulate limits for gasoline engines to protect against increases in airborne particulate levels due to the more widespread use of gasoline direct injection (GDI). While GDI engines are typically more efficient than PFI engines, they emit higher particulate levels, but still meet the current particulate standards.
Technical Paper

Meeting Future Demands for Quieter Commercial Powertrain Systems

Noise legislations and the increasing customer demands determine the NVH-development of modern commercial vehicles. In this paper suitable engineering approaches will be discussed. In order to meet the very stringent legislative requirements of the EEC and some other countries refinement of all vehicle noise sources is required. Cost-effective solutions, however, can only be found with low-noise powertrains, thus being able to avoid excessive noise packages on the vehicle. There is increasing demand, because modular systems should be ready to power a variety of different trucks and busses and allow for easy servicability. With this focus on powertrain noise, the paper discusses and outlines the technological developments required to achieve sufficient noise reduction which aims towards a 1m engine noise level of 93 dBA measured in an acoustic test cell under rated conditions.