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Technical Paper

1500 W Deployable Radiator with Loop Heat Pipe

2001-07-09
2001-01-2194
Two-phase capillary loops are being extensively studied as heat collection and rejection systems for space applications as they appear to satisfy several requirements like low weight, low volume, temperature control under variable heat loads and/or heat sink, operation under on ground and micro gravity conditions, simplicity of mounting and heat transfer through tortuous paths. In 1998–2000 Alenia defined and Lavochkin Association developed the Deployable Radiator on the base of honeycomb panels, axial grooved heat pipes and Loop Heat Pipe. It was designed for on-ground testing.
Technical Paper

1553 RT Mechanizations for Data Sample Consistency and Multi-Message Transfers

1993-04-01
931600
System requirements and Interface Control Drawings (ICDs) make a variety of demands for MIL-STD-1553 remote terminals (RTs). Among these requirements are the need to ensure data integrity and sample data consistency, the need to perform bulk (multi-message) data transfers, and the need to offload the operation of the host CPU to the greatest degree possible. This latter requirement is reflected in such specifications as CPU spare bandwidth. The latest 1553 terminals provide a variety of choices for performing the different types of transfers. This paper provides a discussion of the hardware and software techniques for achieving these objectives. Three different schemes for RT subaddress memory management are presented: single message, circular buffer, and double buffered. For receive and transmit messages, these include fully synchronous single message transfers, asynchronous single message transfers, and multi-message transfers.
Technical Paper

16 Optimisation of a Stratified Charge Strategy for a Direct Injected Two-Stroke Engine

2002-10-29
2002-32-1785
Direct fuel injection is becoming mandatory in two-stroke S.I. engines, since it prevents one of the major problems of these engines, that is fuel loss from the exhaust port. Another important problem is combustion irregularity at light loads, due to excessive presence of residual gas in the charge, and can be solved by charge stratification. High-pressure liquid fuel injection is able to control the mixing process inside the cylinder for getting either stratified charge at partial loads or quasi-stoichiometric conditions, as it is required at full load. This paper shows the development of this solution for a small engine for moped and light scooter, using numeric and experimental tools. In order to obtain the best charge characteristics at every load and engine speed, different combustion chambers have been conceived and studied, examining the effects of combustion chamber geometry, together with injector position and injection timing
Technical Paper

16-Channel Portable Data Acquisition and Reduction System

1984-04-01
840764
A Microprocessor Data Acquisition System has been designed to be cab-mounted in vehicles or used in laboratories to acquire up to 16 channels of test data. This data may be acquired as time-at-level histograms in one or two dimensions with min-max-mean data recovery, time histories, or peaks and valleys stored on digital tape. The system includes a microcomputer-based Playback/Support Box that simplifies playback of data tapes for computer analysis or stand-alone data plotting using a graphics terminal.
Technical Paper

17 Study on Auto-Ignition and Combustion Completion of n-Butane in a Two-stroke Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

2002-10-29
2002-32-1786
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is good method to be higher efficiency and to reduce NOx emission and particular matter together than conventional SI combustion engine. But HCCI depends on chemical reaction of fuel and air mixture. So controlling of ignition timing is difficult, and HCCI is high THC and CO emissions because temperature can't reach the enough temperature to reduce those. In this study, we investigated factor for auto ignition timing and combustion completion on n-Butane/Air mixture by a two-stroke HCCI engine. Auto Ignition temperature are known to be decided by fuel(1), for n-Butane, the temperature was 1150±30K. And as we researched combustion completion from In-cylinder gas temperature, increasing In-cylinder gas temperature caused high combustion efficiency and low THC, CO emissions.
Technical Paper

175°C-Capable Thermoplastic Elastomers for Automotive Air Management and Sealing Applications

2007-11-28
2007-01-2576
Flexibility, oil resistance, and the need for heat resistance to 150°C-plus temperatures have traditionally limited automotive design engineers to two options - thermoset rubber or heat-shielding conventional thermoplastic elastomers (TPE). Both of these options present limitations in part design, the ability to consolidate the number of components in a part of assembly, and on total cost. This paper presents a class of high-performance, flexible thermoplastic elastomers based on dynamically vulcanized polyacrylate (ACM) elastomer dispersed in a continuous matrix of polyamide (PA) thermoplastic. These materials are capable of sustained heat resistance to 150°C and short-term heat resistance to 175°C, without requiring heat shielding. Recent advancements in blow molding and functional testing of the PA//ACM TPEs for automotive air management (ducts) and underhood sealing applications will be shown.
Technical Paper

18 Gasoline CAI and Diesel HCCI: the Way towards Zero Emission with Major Engine and Fuel Technology Challenges

2002-10-29
2002-32-1787
Engines and fuels for transport as well as off-road applications are facing a double challenge: bring local pollution to the level requested by the most stringent city air quality standard reduce CO2 emission in order to minimize the global warming risk. These goals stimulate new developments both of conventional and alternative engines and fuels technologies. New combustion processes known as Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI™) for gasoline engine and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) for Diesel engine are the subject of extensive research world wide and particularly at IFP for various applications such as passenger cars, heavy-duty trucks and buses as well as small engines. Because of the thermo-chemistry of the charge, the thermal NOx formation and the soot production are in principle much lower than in flames typical of conventional engines.
Technical Paper

180 Cu Yd Stripping Shovel

1967-02-01
670745
Because of the size and weight of the various components going into the machine, new approaches were used to solve the practical limitations of manufacturing facilities, shipping clearances, and erection procedures. Although the general appearance of the machine is similar to previous units, there are a number of new design features incorporated in the unit. This paper will be limited to the major design considerations as follows: adaption to stripping two seams of coal simultaneously; dipper with two doors; computerized hydraulic steering maintaining Ackerman correction; double end drive crawlers and belt tensioning; and electrical innovations.
Technical Paper

18000 Series Power Shift Transmission Development

1974-02-01
740673
This paper describes the concept, design, and options of a new power shift transmission family for industrial equipment in the 50-100 hp range. The converter, clutch, and gearing arrangements provide the basis for various transmission configurations with both a drop and straight through output. The designs allow multiple usage of components within a transmission and between different sizes of transmissions. The various gearing, bearing, and clutch designs are based on proved experience factors, and as such will provide a new reliable family of transmissions.
Technical Paper

180MPa Piezo Common Rail System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0274
The challenge for the diesel engines today is to reduce harmful emissions, such as particulate matter (PM) and Nitrogen oxides (NOx), and enhance the fuel efficiency and power, which are its main advantages. To meet this challenge, DENSO has developed an advanced common rail system (CRS) that uses piezo actuated fuel injectors capable of delivering up to five injection events per combustion cycle at 180MPa, currently the world's highest commercially available diesel fuel injection pressure. The DENSO piezo injector incorporates an internally developed piezoelectric element that energizes quicker than its solenoid counterpart, thereby reducing the transition time for the start and end of the fuel injection event. The piezoelectric element and unique passage structure of the DENSO injector combine to provide a highly reliable and responsive fuel injection event.
Technical Paper

19 Separation of Combustion Noise using Transient Noise Generation Model

2002-10-29
2002-32-1788
In a running engine, various impacts are excitation sources for structural vibrations and engine noises. Engine noises are classified, depending on their excitation sources, into the combustion noise, the combustion induced mechanical noise and the mechanical noise. It is difficult to measure such noises separately because some impacts occur closely in time and space. In this paper, a transient noise generation model of an engine was proposed considering vibration and its damping of engine structure. The present model was verified through the single explosion excitation experiment for a stationary engine. Using the noise generation model, the combustion noise was separated from the total noise radiating from a running four-stroke gasoline engine for motorcycles. It was found that the combustion noise had larger power at lower frequencies than higher frequencies. However, its contribution to the total engine noise was relatively small.
Technical Paper

19-Color H2O Absorption Spectrometer Applied for Real-Time In-Cylinder Gas Thermometry in an HCCI Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0188
1 An all fiber-optic sensor has been developed to measure H2O mole fraction and gas temperature in an HCCI engine. This absorption-spectroscopy-based sensor utilizes a broad wavelength (1320 to 1380 nm) source (supercontinua generated by a microchip laser) and a series of fiber Bragg gratings (19 gratings centered on unique water absorption peaks) to track the formation and temperature of combustion water vapor. The spectral coverage of the system promises improved measurement accuracy over two-line diode-laser based systems. Meanwhile, the simplicity of the fiber Bragg grating chromatic dispersion approach significantly reduces the data reduction time and cost relative to previous supercontinuum-based sensors. The data provided by the system is expected to enhance studies of the chemical kinetics which govern HCCI ignition as well as HCCI modeling efforts.
Technical Paper

1937 Road Knock Tests

1938-01-01
380145
THIS paper deals with the road-test portion of the extensive efforts made during 1937 by the Cooperative Fuel Research Committee to get as precise a correlation as possible between the laboratory knock ratings of automobile fuels and their corresponding ratings in cars on the road. It is anticipated that the comprehensive results of car tests reported here, taken together with the results of the laboratory rating program reported in the companion paper, will serve as the basis of the continuing studies aimed at developing the best possible correlation between road and laboratory knock ratings. Work similar to that reported here has been conducted concurrently in England by the Institution of Petroleum Technologists, using British cars and fuels. An exchange of information between the British and American groups working on this problem is being made.
Technical Paper

1940 ROAD DETONATION TESTS - (Compiled from Report1 of The Cooperative Fuel Research Committee)

1941-01-01
410107
THE 1940 CFR Road Tests have developed new information that can be used for the development of fuels and engines. Application of the principles worked out in these tests is expected to result in a more efficient utilization of fuel antiknock properties and more effective engine design and adjustment to meet the requisites of current motor fuels. These tests indicate that the ASTM octane number alone, or even a road octane number as determined by methods heretofore widely used, does not give sufficient information for present needs relative to fuel behavior in service. Neither do test methods previously used provide sufficient information concerning the fuel requirements and knocking characteristics of engines. The new methods of approach which have been developed furnish needed information relative to the fuel and engine relationship that heretofore has been obscure, and indicate paths for future developments.
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